Session 4

Part 1

You recall that I talked a great deal about Pattern Integrity, and there was one episode in my life that I think really dramatizes the pattern integrity. In 1930, I was asked to speak at Dartmouth University, and I had my Dymaxion House at that time, in model, and they had me speak in Dartmouth Hall which is a very old hall there, and all went well. Pretty many years went by, and I was asked in 1947, 17 years later, to come back to Dartmouth to speak, and I spoke again at Dartmouth Hall. But in the meantime there had been a great fire, and Dartmouth Hall had been burned up and they had been so fond of it that they had built an exact replica. So, I was introduced to the audience as having been there 17 years ago, and I when I then began to speak, I said, I didn't like to be contradictory, but I'd never been there before. I said Dartmouth hall had burned down, so we obviously weren't in the same building, and in the meantime 17 years all my cells had changed, so there was nothing of the only thing that really had any identity, were my eyeglasses, which hadn't changed. So here we have an artifact one of the extracorporeal extensions of human beings that I spoke to you about, which was really more permanently part of the pattern "me" than any of my flesh or bones; so that the audience did really understand quite well what I was talking about in terms of pattern integrity.

I'm going to talk now about what I, my strategy or my feeling, about how I carry on. I simply, obviously, have done my best to present to you a grand strategy of problem solving. I brought you into some mathematical thinking about that, and I've done my best to introduce large patterns. And we know why I've done that, if we see enough pattern we may have a chance to discover some of the repetitive, periodic relationships that are occurring, and then we can see, really witness fundamental change in the evolutionary relationship of human beings to the Universe.

But I have in my storage here several other large pattern considerations that I employ a great deal, and I must get those out of the way, and then I am going to gradually come in much more tightly on the energetic geometry we just touched a few items on there. And I'm going to come in on what I call DESIGN SCIENCE, what I call WORLD GAME and I'll come down to a great deal of where we are on our planet right now, what I see going on with all humanity; and particularly what I feel the little human individual can do, what each little human being, so aware of so many other human beings, and the planet being so big, and the complexity of the things that are already operative when you check into the picture, and the automobile is already rushing by, or whatever it may be. Doesn't seem a very good prospect to the individual that he's going to be able to be very effective in this great big planet. He might expect to be fairly effective in a local pattern with a few people. But, what do you do, what can the little individual human do about humans on board of our planet in a big way. It seems for the moment a pretty formidable challenge. So I will talk more about that with you, because I am confident that the little individual can do a great deal, and everyone of the human individuals are going to be able to do a great deal. And if you catch on to the strategies that I employ, you may be able to employ them too. You may want to.

I've talked to you, but tonight I'm going to clean up two or three items. One thing I've talked to you a great deal about is PRECESSION. And, we mentioned a number of times, and you now know what it is I refer to when I say precession. And, I'm now going to talk much more about it, because I find that it seems to be very clearly in evidence, long long ago that the gap between the humanities and the sciences (here he drops his microphone, and shuffles around, and says "I hope this all stays in the picture") the gap between the humanities and the sciences that C.P. Snow talks about in the TWO WORLDS, I feel is one that is spannable, and I, since C.P. Snow wrote his book we have met, and I have talked with him a great deal about it, and he has told me he has changed his mind now, and he does think it can be spanned.

And, I felt when I was young that there were so many things that I could see and feel very clearly. But, I kept looking then for scientific concepts, principles, which I did not feel that I or other human beings tended to sense very clearly. And, of all the big ones I came to, precession seemed to me by far the least sensed. You can have the words and I'm just going to go through somethings as a child. The fundamental, spontaneous participation of a child in the permitted degrees of freedom of our Universe, and what I am saying makes me think that I may start a little further away from the immediate demonstration of precession, because I think these are so interconnected, these child experiences that I'd rather start a little earlier in the child experience thinking, and, as on previous nights I have told you I'm going to do a little digression, but we will not forget where we are at all.

The, I thought a whole lot about, what the relationship of the grownup to the child, and in relation to what everybody discusses a great deal education, and I mentioned to you the other night, trying to identify as closely as I could, what it was that I personally was conscious of doing when I say I am thinking. Recognizing there was a great deal of spontaneity of preoccupation, and subconscious things do occur, that we find that our brain does seek for information when we ask it a question; and thinking about the relationship of the older people to children, and the idea that the child is not an empty container, into which the grown ups, then, gradually insert their knowledge and their wisdom, but the child has incredibly high potential in the faculties that are there, the way in which they could really be used if they're not frustrated by circumstances, and circumstances could be animate or inanimate. The and going to our friend

Pattern Integrity. I want you to think about a little child being born as we said, time and again, absolutely helpless for months, he can't even move himself around, naked, beautiful equipment but no experience, and therefore ignorant. So here is this little child, and this little child has been his mother so used to the idea that this little child is helpless, that she moves it around and she lays it in the crib, and so forth. And the child is laying on the bed, and as the months time going on, the child is growing. And it's legs are growing longer, and its feet are weighing more and its hands are weighing more and so forth. And there comes a day when the little child is lying on the bed, mother has left it there, and it just moving its terminals which it has been doing for a long time, and suddenly the child gets his leg up like this, and his arm at the same time, it didn't realize it, and it overweights him and he rolls over. And nobody around mom hasn't moved me! This is great! I didn't know I could do this. And the little child "what was it I did that made this, and he keeps doing it, and over he goes again. Very often children roll to the edge of the bed and go off, and luckily they are designed hydraulically and pneumatically as we talked about, and so they can really take quite a fall and a punch like that it distributes the load so beautifully, the hydraulics, that it doesn't do any harm. But there is a great memory of something that happened as a consequence of moving around experimentally on your own you got into a little trouble here, something hurt.

So that we have the little child, then, crawling around on the floor, and then gradually, climbing up this thing, and there's something around here mother isn't around here there's something around here that every time I try to do this, it keeps doing this to me. (Bucky is demonstrating this with his body in the video and it truly just cannot be done justice in just words (Jo Anne)) And I, this there's a lot going on around here without mom. Kerplunk. This thing is around her all the time keeps moving everything this way. So, finally, the little child does learn to stand up so. But it is very, very conscious of this thing. So the little child is feeling that, and is running around the house, and suddenly sees the banisters. Now, I want you to realize also, in the little child's doing this, he also wants to get back up he wants to climb up on things right away, to get a feeling of kind of working against the thing that goes that way. So he learns about getting up onto things, like this, and then coming off of it he has learned that (Bucky is demonstrating again), I wish I had a little more room here. He's learned to he's on the bed, and he remembers about he wants to get off the bed. They've laid him on the bed, so he wants to get off. And he learns, he can angle himself up like this, so he, something to do about angles, we got angles like this (I've got to go further down), so he can do that. So he angles up like that, and then he pushes back a leg here. So he angles himself like this and now his legs are out over the edge of the bed, and he remembers that it hurt very much when you let go, so he learns to angle like this, and every time he gets a little too far, he learns he can do this. And so he changes his position, and finally he let's go, and goes here.

Now, what he's been doing, this mysterious phenomena that is around him, he doesn't have a word phenomena, he doesn't have a word mysterious, he just can feel these things very powerfully. There is something here that when he does this way he accelerates, and when he does this way he throws the brakes on. So he has both an accelerator and a brake. It feels pretty bad pretty dangerous, I want to get my legs as near as I can to the floor before I let go, so he keeps putting on the brakes, and finally he lets go. So he has learned, then, there is an angle control there is something about vertical, and something about horizontal. He doesn't have the words any such words.

And, the little child running around, now sees the banisters in the house, and that angle looks kind of familiar to him, sort of a critical angle half way between the accelerator and the brakes. And by this time he has been holding on to a lot of things with his hands, so he feels "I can hold on to those banisters" and that angle there "I'll start sliding." So, nobody is around, and he climbs up and sure enough, he lets go and ZOOOOOOP. He lets go and holds on again, and sure enough a beautiful ride. And so, there's something around him all the time that not Mom or nothing that gets him from here to there, so this child feels very strongly that coasting business the angle the angular acceleration that he has.

Suddenly there is a winter day. He'd never seen winter before, and now he is out on the front porch, and it's all snowy and ice in the city, and he sees that angle down the steps there. And he starts to go walking out, and he never had ice or snow before, and he didn't realize it was going to be slippery. He's used to floors that are not slippery and he goes sliding down the porch steps to the street. And he says "Boy, that's great!" So, I don't want to it hurts my back, so he quickly finds something he can sit on and starts doing it. Children are fantastically inventive about finding something they can coast on. Now this little child the parents, always afraid their children are going to get themselves in trouble, and I'll just point out to you, this child is perfectly spontaneously full of the awareness when he lets go that the further he is from the floor the more it hurts. So there is something about height. And also, if it's angular, if the angle feels right I say he doesn't have any words yet, he doesn't use the word angle, but he FEELS the word angle, absolutely completely, he is just hunching himself up like that, he couldn't be anymore angular. Nothing more that's what his hands have been doing all that time and his arms have been doing it's angling. So angles are very familiar to him and he has angular control. So what he's doing when he's grasping like that, it's angular control. So, he feels very strongly the angle and he understands that horizontal, because the street is horizontal and I say he doesn't use the word horizontal, but the street is horizontal, which means breaks. He's going to stop. Therefore you feel, as long as you can see at the bottom where it becomes level, he perfectly well dares to go down a slide, because you really feel there was a little friction quite different from a free drop, as long as there's the right angle feeling. So kids really judge this coasting thing very powerfully, without anybody telling them what to do.

So I now have this child which has learned, and I say no child will go over a cliff. The parents say I am terribly afraid that this child will go off a cliff or will go off the house they couldn't be more aware of the hurt, and they just automatically do not get in trouble. They only do these things when they can see the horizontal when they can see the brakes. Couldn't be more logical.

Part 2

Now, I have this little child who has never been out of the city, and this little child comes into the parlor, and they've got a television, and they're having the Olympic Ski trials in Hokaido, Japan, and this little child is in Philadelphia he's never been out to Japan. And he sees there is quite a mountain there well he sees a pile of pillows on his bed, and he can understand a hill and the feeling of the hillside and that's a big one. And he can see, then that angle, and that feels good to him; then he sees the snow and that seems good to him. So everything that goes on there, in the skiing looks absolutely logical to him and what the skier is doing, slalom, he's using angles on his ankles and he's entirely angling, angling, angling as he comes down. Everything is angles. The little child feels this then completely logical to him.

Now, what I'm getting at, oh incidentally, I was asked to come and speak in Aspen, Colorado in the winter, in l972, and the professional who started Aspen as a ski run, after the army used it for training, the professional they first had there who really turned it into a ski resort was Eastland, and he was still there in l972, and I don't know whether he still is. And Eastland said to me, "Have you ever skied," and I said "No, I never did I've done a great deal of skating, but I never did ski. I guess I'm much too old." And he said "Not necessarily. If you'd like to, and we'll have to get you the right equipment, we'll have to get you properly fitted out. If you'd like to I'll take you out and see how you do really get on." And so we went at it for two or three days, and he said that I could ski.

And, then, I felt very, very obligated to this man. He was the professional, he was doing this all for nothing with me, and taking a tremendous amount of time. We were having hot tea and coffee after skiing, and I told him what I just told you. I said I am now going to give you the scientific description of skiing the scientific generalization of skiing it is called angular valving of gravity. He said, I never thought of it that's exactly right. Isn't that interesting really? There is a pattern integrity, we're getting really at a generalization.

We find that, and this great skier really felt that that was absolutely accurate, and he enjoyed it tremendously. This, then, relates to what I feel about education. That is, I am absolutely confident the child and the human being must teach itself. It must really find out. It has to have confidence as it goes. It has to get a feeling of what it is all about. Then, what the teacher can do, is then, if the child has experienced a little of that, then the teacher can do what the television did he can tell you that there is a great big mountain, instead of just a little hill out in front of the house, and that the same principle is going to work. So the teacher must really only amplify what it is that the child already feels and feels very deeply. And, they assume that the child didn't feel it because they didn't have the words gravity or horizontal it's absolutely nonsense. Those are very limited, special ethnic experiences, and the communication lines are already open, and whatever words happened to be used are fine. And the child will take on the words, as long as it is identifying what it feels.

Now, this brings me back then, as I said, to thinking about precession. I have this little child, and a little child then we found, learned it could roll over, that was a whole lot. Not the original experience at all. So then the little child when he does finally stand up, having actually rotated, then the little child very quickly finds you see the little children trying this, they have a lot of fun spinning round and spinning round (Bucky is demonstrating this on the tape).

So, then, this is one of the prime motions of our Universe. We have actually a rotation of our planet. We have, the axial is a very, very fundamental thing to the Universe.

Then we have the same little child learning that not only rotating, he can also go into orbit, go around in circles. Then he finds he can go into orbit while axially rotating too so we call that dancing. So we've got two very important motions of Universe here. Then, the little child learns that it can take in his breath, he can expand and contract. A very fundamental motion of Universe. We've now got three very important ones here. Now, another one he can do is to twist his top one way and his bottom the other way. We call that "twist" in dancing now, but "torque." So we have axial, orbital, expansion-contraction, torque four of them. Now another one, very fundamental, is just start kissing. Try to turn oneself inside-out. I gave you the rubber glove the other day. Evoluting, rubber donut remember. Evoluting at the top and involuting at the bottom. The child starts to find then, involuting-evoluting, which you apparently get in all of electro-magnetics and so forth.

So there are five of the most fundamental motions in the Universe which the child is spontaneously familiar with and you can talk about. But the word, "precession," we come to that, and the child is kind of blank. The first child experience of "precession" that he might be able to catch onto is when his uncle brings him a top. And the uncle brings him a top, and starts winding it up, and then after a while he gets the top going. So the top is axially rotating very rapidly, but also, it has a secondary, very small motion it leans way over like this. And the little child has learned that when he leans way over like that, he keeps on going. So he says, "Uncle, why doesn't it fall over if it's leaning?" And Uncle says "I've got to get a cigar," and that's the end of that.

The reason, of course, is "precession." The reason he was familiar with these other five is that he seemed to do them all alone. One of the things that engineering tries to remind the non-engineer about is that every action has a reaction, but to a little child, the fact that he is doing this doesn't make him realize that he is pushing the earth that way a little he's so tiny and the earth is so big, there is just no such awareness. But he is, of course, affecting the planet to an incredibly meager degree but he is doing so.

Now, "precession," as I said was "the effect of bodies on motion on other bodies in motion. So he really was doing a "precessional" thing to the earth, but he was unaware that he was doing it. So, the first five are familiar because they seem to be within yourself, and you do not think of the earth as in motion, even, let alone that you could push it a little. I can understand then why "precession" has been in a sense so remote from the basic thinking of the individual feeling himself so very independent on what seemed to be a flat earth, going to infinity. And he's the only thing in motion.

Now, "precession," I was the Science and Technology Advisor on the staff of FORTUNE MAGAZINE for two years. They had no editorial titles on FORTUNE, so that they did not put that on the articles when I wrote, but my job was to, when FORTUNE would take one great corporation after another and explain the great, enormous work that corporation was doing, and explain which executives had the highest initiative and so forth they did very good stories on these corporations. But, the Managing Editor who brought me on to FORTUNE was Henry Luce at that time in 1938 wanted me to try to bring home to the readers of FORTUNE a little more insight into the science and technology which really lay behind the great corporations' activity. And I was only put on stories where the technology was something difficult, and when I came to do those stories the chief scientists, Vice President in Charge of Research and Engineering, or whatever it might be, would always say to me, "it's going to be impossible for you to tell the FORTUNE readers what it is we are concerned with in depth in science here in our company, because it can only be expressed mathematically. And the FORTUNE readers do not read the mathematics, or very few of them do, so therefore there is no way you can talk to them."

I had been given a double spread for each of my stories, and in every instance I was able to tell the FORTUNE reader what it was they were engaged in, in depth, without recourse to just the mathematical formulas. I was able to bring it into some sensibility, that I just gave you, the same kind of sensing identification, experience of your own body.

Part 3

So, we came to doing the Sperry Gyroscope Company in 1940 W.W.II was looming. Sperry not only had the gyroscope at their northern bombsight, it was very critical from a national defense policy, it was a critical area and yet they did not feel that in any way it would be putting that operation into jeopardy to have me talk something about the technology. At any rate, the very essence of the Sperry Gyroscope Company was the gyroscope. And the gyroscope does what it does -as pure "precession" which is employed.

The said, just to show you how impossible your task is with a double spread, we have to have a primer for the Naval Academy midshipmen because the navy uses so many gyroscopes for so many controls, that the naval officer has to have some important insights into what he is dealing with. Therefore, we have this primer, and it takes 50 pages to tell the Naval Academy midshipmen about "precession" in an important way, and it is entirely quantum mechanics. So they said "Your task is impossible."

Now, I had only 30 days to work on this story, and I did come out with the explanation of the "precession" and the gyroscope, which I brought to one's own senses, and did clarify and the scientists of the Sperry Company said they really were astonished, but they agreed that it was not just a sort of happy analogy I was using, it was absolutely the direct explanation. They had not realized that it could be experienced in terms of the senses, because it seemed to be a very perverse matter, precession seamed to be a very perverse thing, like a kid saying "Why doesn't the top fall over?"

Now there are several matters that are going on. There are "precession" where we are dealing in acceleration. And there are two kinds of acceleration which are recognized by the physicists. They are what we call linear and angular. Linear obviously like that, and angular, think of swinging a weight around your head, like the hammer thrower, it is angular acceleration while you are having some restraint on it and while you are making it work in a circle. When you let go of it, then it goes linear. Radial. Radial versus circumferential.

The "precessional" is that, and we're going to try to get some sense of understanding why it is, because I am sure for most people, then, the feeling that gravity is 180 degrees, for instance the earth ought to fall into the sun. And why does the effect of the sun on the earth make it go around it at 90 degrees instead of falling in. This is one of the reasons why it seems perverse because everybody, the child, really thinks about the gravity pulling this way it's a 180 degree affair, and human beings get to be very linear this way, and they want to explain things very linearly. They're looking this direction.

Now, I'm going to go into my explanation. I'm going to think about an athlete we call a hammer thrower. He has a heavy weight metal ball, connected to a rod and two triangular handles professional hammer throwing. And he it's lying on the ground and he gets it into acceleration, and as he gets into acceleration, it gets out horizontally. And here we get into something quite important, because he can actually build energy momentum into the system as he gets to accelerating this weight. He gets going faster and faster, really using his muscles to get enormous acceleration. In other words, you can accumulate energy in this angular acceleration. So, when he does let go of it, it goes off on a line, with that angular acceleration, how far he throws it, how much energy he really got built into the system.

I'm going to have a special apparatus for our Great Olympic Hammer Thrower. I'm going to have a wide belt made for him very powerful belt, and it has many hooks on it powerful hooks. And we get him to start the acceleration. He gets one of these balls accelerating and, we get him to hook it on to his belt. Then we give him another one, and he gets that going too, along with it, and that would probably be in the opposite direction just balancing the weights very spontaneously, and he gets that hooked onto his belt too. Now he's built up a lot of motion and he can't really stop very much, so we hand him another one, and another, and one by one he gets them accelerated and hooks then onto his belt. So finally he has a whole grass skirt horizontally out here of all these balls, and there is so much momentum built into it, that he cannot really stop himself and he would be in a lot of trouble. So, we've anticipated it by, the floor that he was on we had already made a turntable, a very nice turntable, a ball bearing turntable, but we had had it locked so he could shove off and get his acceleration. But now we release the table so that it will spin alright for him, and we also then, to make him very comfortable, we bring down a ball bearing pad on his head from an arm from above, and so he is between the floor and the pad and he is moving around very easily since he has built all that momentum so he's spinning around here. The balls are getting to be so many, they are touching one another.

And, we now then, I'm going to leave him spinning for a minute. We're going to another man that is really not in the Olympic game. He has a mouthful of plastic peas, and he's got an aluminum tube a pea shooter. And he's blowing peas out of the end of the tube. And we could use other things. A machine gun would hurt you if you put your finger in the way. We could use a hose of water, but you can't see the individual molecules. A pea shooter is very convenient because you can see the individual peas coming out, and if he blows good and hard they go out fairly far. So you find that with the peas coming out you can come over and put your finger in the trajectory of the peas, and if you put your finger in kind of from the side like that you can make it deflect over there, can't you? Or put it a little bit under it and make it pop up a little. So you can change it angularly. This is our friend "angular valving." So we can change the trajectory.

Now, the fact is, that no matter how hard he blows, it only goes a little way before gravity pulls it to the earth. And so the gravity, blowing, if you don't put your finger there to deflect, and there is no wind as he blows it the pea operates in a plane, and the plane is perpendicular to the earth, as gravity pulls it so you would really describe this as a curve on a plane. So what happens when you put your finger there to move it on one side of the trajectory of the peas, you simply make a change like that and gravity still takes over, and what you really do is push the plane in which the pea is operating you push it a little this way. All right? Do you feel that? Then, if I remove my finger, the pea doesn't act as though it were an elastic band and try to go back to where it had been at all. It simply, it's changed its angle and gravity has also changed angle you've got two forces operating on the pea well three forces, the original acceleration, then my deflection, and gravitation's deflection. There are two angular deflections operating on it. The point is that it does not then have memory and try to go back to what it was doing before. You can understand that very clearly. The peas, simply, if I push my finger in here then the next pea will then go over here, then each pea has, however, a plane in which it moves. If we put a permanent finger here, into the trajectory, and left it there, all the peas would follow the same plane. You didn't push it any further. The plane could be reoriented, but the point is that the minute you stop pushing it it holds that plane. It does not try to come back to where it was before. Now, we've learned individual peas can be deflected. We can push one a little further than another, but the individual and once you have given it its new angle it is going to keep right on and now it is only being affected by the gravity. Gravity is the one that is altering it, the only one.

Now that we've learned what happens with an individual pellet, I am going to come back to, I recognize then this hammer thrower going around here, these are individual pellets that he has out there. They are individual energy units, and they are very much heavier than the peas, but they follow the same laws exactly. If you had cannon balls coming out and you had some kind of a steel finger you could put in the way, you could make the same deflection.

Now, I'm going to point out that the ball bearing turntable we had underneath the hammer thrower and the ball bearing pad on his head each one of them were mounted on vertical arms, a vertical arm going this way and another vertical arm going that way. And they were mounted from an annular ring a great big annular ring, and the annular ring would go 90 degrees around on it from this pivotal point, and we've got another set of hinges of trunnions. We built what we call and that's mounted in another ring gimbals. If you've seen gimbals for a gyroscope, and it has now all x,y, z axes of rotatibility. So this man is spinning and he is in gimbals.

Now I'm going to have him spinning out here in front of me. I'll have him spinning over here, and I'm going to come over here, and as those individual pellets go by hammers if I put my finger down, and maybe I'll put something, a guard or something on it, so it won't hurt too much put my finger down and touch one of those balls I'm going to deflect it agree? So I keep my finger there, and once I've deflected it, it hasn't any memory to want to come back, so as the ball is going around this way, and I touch it, then it goes down like that. But it had another restraint, which was the rod pulling it through, just as the pea had gravity pulling it, its own acceleration has been where gravity was no longer affecting it you can do that but the point is that the rod was really tantamount to the gravity that pulled on the pea, so after I touched it the rod is still holding onto it, so this pellet went by me here, and I touched it, and it went down like that. But it's on the rod so it's going to go round in a circle. So I keep my finger there then touching each one of these pellets as they go by, and each of them peels off. I've got a nice mathematical control for my finger so I'll just give each one of them exactly the same touching, and each one of them peels off like that one after the other, very much like airplanes coming along in flight, and they suddenly peel off one after another. They get into, then a new plane. The wheel which had been revolving horizontally here, you can see the man's in front of me here, and I've just touched it at this point, so each one of those pellets goes slanting down like that, from where I've touched it, it slants like that but then it stays in and goes around and comes up on the other side, so for the moment there is really a terrific bending of this thing, because it is at a very severe angle as you touch it. And I keep my finger there until the whole thing has gone by and everything has changed. It means then that the plane that I have been dealing in I wish I had a little larger disk. Could you let me have your book. So I touched the pellet here, one by one, and they slant like that because I did that. Could you see that? My deflection was this way as it went by, so this does this, but it was restrained then, so the whole disc does this. Which means then that the axle of that wheel, also then has to stay perpendicular because we had him with a very wide belt and he just normally has to do this, so the whole gimbals permitted it there were hinges on the horizontal annular ring, so the whole thing was able just to hinge that way. So when I touch it here, the whole disc changes like that, where the axle just goes over do you see that? It feels absolutely normal to you what I showed you doesn't it? Nothing wrong with it. That's exactly what these wheels do.

Part 4

So I had the hammer thrower, but instead of I want to do a little more. When you do touch a gyrating wheel, a rotating wheel like that, there is an enormous strain in it because you really are touching the individual parts so they are trying to really break the wheel in two. However, if before I touch one of those pellets, as they went around, I had draped very powerful scotch tape on top of them glass scotch tape and it went all the way around we'd have a condition where these balls are touching each other and there is tension tape on top of them. Therefore, if I touch this ball here, the blue one, on top it's going to do this it's against here and its tension across, so that it's simply going to pull like this. And this acts as a fulcrum and lifts on the one behind it, the third ball behind as this one goes down is going to lift the one behind it. We have tension in the system, on top of the system, if I touch this here it will work back all through the whole wheel so it will help the whole wheel to tip a little faster, because not only is the one I'm touching going down but the one behind gets lifted but all around the same axis, going around here. The axis between you and me, because I'm touching it here, and it's going in that plane.

Now, then I'd point out, that instead of putting the tape on the balls I'm going to give the hammer thrower twice as many more balls and have him spin and get him loaded up. Now you'll find that the first set the acceleration was such that they were out horizontally in respect to his waist. And I've given him twice as many, so he gets a layer on top, and a layer on bottom, and they're trying to go horizontal so they press together on the ones that are already there. They'll nest between nest in the valleys of them and grip them very tightly. If I gave them all as they all tried to get into the horizontal plane, so they grip it even tighter, and it begins to act as a unit material, it has the same tension effect as that tape I gave you. So this, then, I was more or less describing what a fly wheel looks like that you have in your gyroscope. But we understand that the very center of that wheel has its individual atoms, and really must be thought of as individual quanta doing just what I said. I've shown you how the quanta due to the friction and the intertensioning. There is the friction of the one ball on top of the other, which would make it do it, we have the mass interattraction of the balls too.

So, you'll now understand that instead of thinking about as a man I want you to think about it as a steel axle perpendicular to the wheel. So I simply will tell you, if I then, if a gyroscopic wheel is moving in gimbals in front of me at high speed, if I touch it you'd probably hurt your finger you take some tiny little metal finger and just touch it here the whole wheel does just what I said. It's going around this way, I touch it right here and it rotates this way. Let me show you it stands in front of me here and there is an axis between you and I, and it rotates on that axis.

Now, instead of touching the wheel, if it were made out of steel, and a steel axle, supposing then instead of my pushing down on the wheel here, I leaned in over the thing and took a hold of the axle took hold of the top of the gimbals where the gyroscope is mounted, and I pulled the top towards me, it would be the same as pushing down here, wouldn't it? It's still rotating in this plane. I've forced it into this plane between you and I, then, there's the circle there. So if I took hold of the top, pulled it towards me, then I would get exactly the same results as if I pushed down here. So you do try that with a gyroscope, so you pull on here and it doesn't yield to you it goes over to your right. Now suddenly, I want you to realize I have brought you clearly thru, so you understand, but people say, that is very perverse! I push on the top of the gyroscope, and instead of its yielding to me and my pushing, it goes to the right or left. It goes into a plane at 90 degrees. This is why "precession" has been considered so difficult to understand, because human beings think it ought to go if I push on it, it ought to yield the way I am pushing it. And the fact is, then, that if I push on it it goes to the right,, and if I push on it harder, it goes faster, and it keeps going to the right as fast. So if I keep pushing on it the whole thing keeps going around in a circle this way. The axle will be going around in a circle at a not in the direction I'm pulling, but in a plane perpendicular to me. If the wheel had originally been going the other way, it would go that way. So long as I push it, it keeps on. If I push it harder, it goes faster, and the minute I stop everything stops. It doesn't have a memory to try to be something else at all so you can understand that.

Now, this is the gyroscope, and I hope I have really introduced to you why you've felt your way through, and I really didn't bring in the paradox of the way you feel until the end so that you really could feel it with me all the way through and everything went on was absolutely normal. It's exactly what your experience will tell you will happen. So I find that the error has been in humanity really thinking 180 degrees. And you say, anybody can throw a straight ball.

Now, what really goes on when you throw a straight ball? The pitcher may get a part of a circle in a wind up like this he just sends them out and he goes over like this. Now the fact is, the pitcher you're looking that way, and you've been throwing balls for an awful long time and you say, "I'm looking that way, therefore, I'm throwing there. You don't. He let's go here, at 90 degrees from the direction in which it's going, and then it goes in that direction. He may go on with this finger to put spin on it, which he does. And he doesn't try to stop himself right away, but the point is that his acceleration is this is this is where he let go. And it goes at 90 degrees.

I want to make that a little clearer. You're playing tennis and you're serving. You throw the ball up here and you hit it at 90 degrees and it goes over there. We've always been operating at 90, and we've absolutely kidded ourselves into thinking that we're throwing the ball out here. We don't throw it out here at all, if we throw it out here it goes into the ground.

Now, this is good fun to catch ourselves in ways where we have been able to deceive ourselves in what it is that we are really doing. "Precession" couldn't be more normal. What's abnormal is that we've kidded ourselves into thinking that we could get 180 degrees. The trouble is, the shooting of a gun. That fools you. That's another kind of acceleration. Your ball is vertical, and you tensed it this way and it went that way.

And just come back again to the rope. Remember, I took a piece of rope and the moment I pulled on the rope the more I pulled on it the tauter it became, which means that while I'm pulling it this way, it is going into compression at 90 degrees from where I'm pulling it. Do you remember that? The other day when I loaded in compression all these rods, already in closest packing. They couldn't go towards each other, so as I loaded them, they all began to cigar. And the bindings I had around went into was offset by this pressure, so my compressioning got a 90 degrees tension, and the tension got compression at 90 degrees. And I gave you the electromagnet, when it approached the copper coil, no electric current at all, but just an electromagnet approaching it, and it induces a current. And the current goes at 90 degrees, and sets up a field that says at 90 degrees, "don't come any further" to this magnet. I stop moving the magnet, and everything stops. "Precession" stops. I start to pull the magnet the other way and in the copper wire becomes another current again, and it sets up a field that tries to pull on it and says don't go away. We find that precession is completely regenerative one brings out the other. So I gave you the dropping the stone in the water, and the wave went out that way. And this way beget that way. And that way beget that way. And that's why your circular wave emanates. Once you begin to get into "precession" you find yourself understanding phenomena that you've seen a stone falling in the water all of your life, and have never really known why the wave does just what it does.

Well, I'm now quite confident that I've taken you into "precession" and given you a very, actually hooked up your own senses with it. There is another phenomena in there which is very important, which is acceleration as also orbital, the precessional effect of the earth on the sun the sun on the earth making us go into orbit around the sun. And then we're doing the same to that moon. And I find, then, that the, it is an amazing matter how Professor Goddard was not understood, and an amazing matter how really beautiful was Goddard's accrediting what Isaac Newton had discovered, which I also went over with you the other day. Every time you half the distance between two masses you increase their interattractiveness four fold. If you double the distance away, you decrease the interattractiveness to one quarter of what it had been. Nobody really paid attention to these kinds of things, in a personal way in terms of their senses. Professor Goddard did, so he said, our earth is already going around the Sun at 60,000 miles an hour, and if we gave some object an acceleration any object on board this planet is going also at 60,000 miles an hour around the sun in company with the earth. So we give any object an additional acceleration over that 60,000 could make it then begin to leave the planet. Then every time it doubles its distance out its going to reduce the tendency to fall back into one quarter of what it was. You wouldn't have to go very far out before you no longer tend to fall in anymore. It would then just stay in its own independent acceleration it's their own orbiting.

So, this is Goddard, and it is a very simple matter.

I find human beings, again, on board of our planet, not tending to we're so tiny, and these total experiences are so big not tending to really get things into scale. But, when we accelerate, and we were first told that the rocketed vehicles had gone into orbit, we thought of them as very far out, because our highest mountain is 5 miles. When we get to our airplanes, many of them are flying at the jets at 40,000, 30,000 feet, and well above a Mount Everest kind of thing. And we get to 50,000 and that's only l0 miles out. And at 50,000 you can't see the plane. That's only 10 miles out and you can't see it. So make it 10 times that or 100 miles, and you just assume that it is fantastically out in the blue that's the way it looks to you and I on our planet. But the fact is that our vehicles begin to go into orbit at 100 miles out. Now the diameter of our earth 8,000 miles, and 100 miles in relation to 8,000 is a very small amount isn't it. You find then, take a thin paper match and glue it onto this globe here, that is 100 miles out from the surface of this globe. In other words, it would seem, look to you, as if it were still in the globe. But, now it's independent. It's in orbit. In other words, you don't have to go very far out in this Universe before you get to beyond what we call this critical proximity and you no longer tend to fall in. Falling in is a very, very rare part of our Universe. It is very seldom that anything gets close enough to fall into anything else. The norm is orbit, and this 180 degree falling is something called critical proximity, when it really becomes part of this mass.

Part 5

Now, I want you to get yourself feeling a new norm here of the normality of precession. There is also then, I talked to you the other day about man, and all the other creatures on board of our planet. And we went into how and why we're here. And I then identified man as having a function in Universe. And, in order to get him ready for it he had to go thru being born naked, and absolutely ignorant, and having to make trial and error to get somewhere just to learn the generalized principles so that he could really then employ the principles, which no other creature could, to make it possible for him to deal in larger and larger parts of the Universe. And he could get into environments he had never been in before, and get on appropriately to get more and more information, which is his function to process and to solve problems. So we have, then, all the biological life here to support and make possible that activity. We have the, we found that the mammals couldn't take any of the sun radiation through their skin to keep the energizing, re-energizing, which we all have to have, so that we remember then I gave you then the pattern of the trees being rooted in order to be able to do what they're doing to get the water, and not to blow away. Then we found that because the vegetation was rooted it couldn't procreated with other vegetation, therefore we have all the insects and many, many mobile creatures designed to traffic back and forth between all the vegetation to cross-pollinate them, so that the whole system regenerates.

We had, then, the big thing is what we call the ecology, and it is an orbital affair it is a cyclic affair over this way, and this way. But in order to get creatures to do these things, they are given chromosomic instructions. They are designed structurally, mechanically, beautifully and given the chromosomic drive to go off after the honey. I had then man going after his honey, it's called "money honey" something he could exchange for goods, and inadvertently having his hunger, but also being having a procreative urge, he inadvertently made children got side effects. And this increases his responsibility so he is going out after this "money honey" more, trying to take care of these side effects. And, inadvertently, then, he begins to do the things he's supposed to do.

I gave you then, man with an enormous fixation on the 180 degreeness but the "precession" and the orbiting is the normal. And that's what the ecology is, and this is eternally regenerative Universe, and all ecology on our planet, then, to support the human and human mind's activity to really deal in principles of Universe and to solve local problems in pure principle is a very important function.

So I hope that I have now brought you back to really feeling the normality of the ecology. And the normality of all the orbiting whether it is the orbiting of the electron around the nucleus orbit, orbit, orbit. This is the normal of Universe. All the inner effects of all, or most bodies in motion, and all other bodies in motion in Universe is all "precessional." So I hope that instead of this just being a word that seems remote to you now, it suddenly begins to be important.

But there was also involved then, in the picture I gave you of the hammer thrower accelerating, it was at horizontal. That is simply, again, if you accelerate an object on our planet enough, it tends to be independent. That's why a bicycle lying down on the ground, has fallen over, it yields to gravity. But the minute you get on it and as soon as you start going along, the faster you go, the more vertical you are. If you get enough acceleration, you're going to leave the earth. That's all you need. In other words, you tend to be leaving the earth. The acceleration being given to those balls by the hammer thrower, was such that a gravity was no longer important. They were really tending to be free in Universe.

So, I hope I've made clear all the items that need to be clear to make "precession" seem to you normal. And, remember yesterday when I gave you this, suddenly the octahedron, and just precessed the effect on that octahedron a one pull effect would precess that one vector, and it would turn like that and it went from a fourness to a threeness. And went from being a generalized case to a specialized case. And really probably every time we go into the special Nature reserves one increment, and so forth. This is how we have the "invisible" where all these special cases are finite and discontinuous. You see how they can be.

Now, I'm going to go into another area, and we haven't been going on long enough for a break. So, I talked to you about my maps the other night, and I will not as yet go into how these maps are designed. We'll do that as we get into the Synergetic Geometry and so forth. But I do want to come back to man on our planet. I have given you the exercise of thinking about little man on our 8,000 mile globe. And that the highest mountains and deepest oceans the aberrations could not be seen on a polished globe like this. The actual fact is that the ink with which you print the water on this globe is deeper than the water by a good deal. And, so little you and I would be very invisible on such a phenomena. Little you and I are in physical stature, having this mental capability that we looked into, to take the inventory of all the chemical elements present in a ll.5 billion light year sweepout of the heavens; being able to develop the equipment to get into the invisible world; getting then, being able to photograph the stars and so forth, 99.9% of which are not visible to our naked eye. That human beings then that tiny little you and I are really able to deal with these magnificent-scale affairs, and to get the kind of information we are then having. And coming then to the development of human beings on board of our planet, which I went into a little with you the other day.

I would like to go through, going from that concept of being born naked and have to be placed where you would not be eaten up or freeze to death. And the coral atolls of the South Pacific being the most favorable possible place where you could be born. Where there would be no big animals to eat you up, and so forth. I personally this is highly speculative what I'm going to talk to you now about. But I was in the regular United States Navy at the time of World War I, and I became tremendously interested in the possibility of what I called a Sea Archeology versus a Dry Land Archeology. Because all the archaeologists were digging and unburying and uncovering old cities, and so forth; and putting together pieces. But what struck me very, very powerfully, because I was a sailor, was the relative ignorance in the building of the land, we just piled stone on stone in contradistinction to the what you really had to know about in order to be able to build a successful boat, going from just a raft or a canoe or outrigger to a big, deep ribbed, ships carrying incredible cargoes around our planet.

Realizing, I'll give you we went through the other day tensile strengths of mortar, you remember; and stone being 50,000 pounds of compression and only 50 in tensile. And as you get into the metals that had high tensile capability. Historically in building, man then, could gravity just helped him he could roll the stone over and get it to nest on other stones some kind of way chip it so it would lay there, and gravity held the whole thing together. And the stone was relatively imperishable, so they seemed to last a long time. The great walls that were built by human beings that way would crumble down when earthquakes came but otherwise they were pretty secure, until an enemy might storm it, and finally be able to knock down your wall. But this is the way things are built on the land. And the bigger and heavier and higher, the more secure the people felt. And so we see all those castles and this kind of building.

You could finally learn to have a stone corbel out a little way so you could get some fairly interesting designs after you are deeply familiar with it, but you still have to play with gravity as sort of a game to be sure she doesn't tip too far this way you need a stone in here. So, human beings, then, dealing in almost completely compression, and very poor tension capability.

However, I want you to think about what a beam is. I'm going to make, my hands are going to be a beam. My two arms are walls. I've got a beam between the two walls. I've got a load on top here, and as the load comes on top the bottom tries to open up, it starts to go like that way the top goes into compression and the bottom goes into tension. And the tension is not great, so it just comes apart and the whole thing comes down very quickly. You see that alright?

So, when the Greeks, then, wanted to do some spanning, they had to get their columns very close to each other, and then they could get a very deep block of stone because you have your principle of leverage. This top, here, is the fulcrum. And the deeper the stone is, the longer your lever arm so that you know the longer your lever arm the less effort, so if the stone is deep enough the tension can hold it together. But as it gets shorter and shorter the tension necessary to offset this has to be greater and greater. Can you feel that alright? This is a lever here. So the deeper it is, the less effort to hold it together. So the Greeks used a very, very deep stone and they only could span a very short distance between those columns. Go and look at the Parthenon and you'll see, and those stones up there are cracking too on the bottom you'll see they're trying to come apart. So we see go to very ancient like Mycenae and they have a very small gate and a very deep stone. When they wanted to have any greater span, they had to go to wood. So we find that in all the antiquities all these verticals, because the verticals are the way gravity is holding it together. The minute that you go horizontal, gravity is trying to break it apart. So beautiful gravity holding it together vertically, this way she works against it. Our old friend "angular valving of gravity" here, and so forth.

Part 6

We have the human beings, then, using wood. Because wood the masonry I said is only 50 pounds per square inch, and with wood you could get up to 10 you get very fancy woods, like birch, very special swatches of birch you might get up to 25,000. But the tensile strengths of wood go 5,000, 7,000 up to l0,000. But l0,000 is very strong wood in tensile strength. But 10,000 as against 50 is very high. But wood is perishable. It rotted and burned and so forth.

So, in antiquity we have all the verticals where gravity is holding together the stone, and the horizontals have gone if they were of any span at all, because they were of wood and rotted out. And so, as I said, if an earthquake came along, the whole thing went down. There is really no important brilliance here, really. You have a great, powerful general and enough slaves, and captives and so forth, they simply keep piling on the stone. There may be some artistic character around, so you'd have him chip the stone a little fancy for you. Or the General wants his name written in the stone there, or some picture of him. So there were people they'd have to do some superficial decorating, but engineering wise it was a matter of pure muscle and not really mind at all.

But this business of tension begins to introduce something to you, and the principle that principle of leverage we talked to you about is a "generalized principle," and has very important discrete usability.

So we come to a ship of the sea. People found then, I spoke yesterday about the three-quarters of the earth being covered by water And 25% dry land, but only about half of that that was not rocks and deserts and ice, and getting down to about 1% that is immediately propitious to support human life where there were things growing. There were grapes to be eaten, there were bananas, whatever it is. People could eat and get going. And the people continually find themselves, where nature went against them there was a draught that year, things didn't grow that year, and so they were suddenly in mortal peril. And we went into the development of the city state or these stone walls. What the people who did find a very favorable place did, like Mycenae, and the very beautiful Argolean planes there, they had found a hill in the middle of the valley quite high. It had a well. And they built a great stone wall up there. And then stone grain bins, and when they saw the enemy coming thru the pass they took all the food and put it inside, and they scorched the fields. So the people that came outside, and they were very hungry already, you can only go for 30 days without food approximately, so they just watched the people outside wilt away.

We found then, other people found that the water had fish, and you could live on that but the water might look very beautiful down at the harbor one day, and suddenly they were out there in the sea and an enormous storm comes. So the people found they really couldn't go off on the 3/4 of the earth which is water to any important degree, till they began to have better and better boats, because I want you to think about it. A boat, and you've got a big wave. And the boat is then a beam between the two waves. Can you see that alright. So the boat is then being a beam my arms are the peaks of two waves, and my boat is between the two. So it is trying to do this. A minute later the wave is in the middle of the boat, and it wants to go that way it is being racked this way and that way. Fantastic stresses, incredible stresses. Now, the difference between going to sea and being on the land is incredible. Number one, I gave you then, remember, crystallines, liquids, and gases. And the crystallines were triple bonded three times, a lot of tension to hold them together there. The liquids were hinged so they distribute loads, and the gases were universally jointed so they distributed loads and were really compressible, and the liquids were non-compressible. When we then, get the amount of energy necessary to disturb the crystalline in Universe, it takes three times as much to disturb the crystalline as it does the gases. And only twice as much to disturb the liquid as it does to move the gases.

In Universe, one of the most interesting parts of the great patterns of energy is, I gave you yesterday, the degrees of freedom. The way energies can get, with any given move, when it is your turn to play, you get six positive and six negative moves you can make. And you can get way out. And I showed you how we've got distance differentials entering into the total experience. And, so we have energies dispersed, and we have expanding Universe. We've been into our "syntropy" and "entropy" and so forth. I'd like then to come to the thinking of fundamental experience which is the relation to wave and frequency the big ones. Fundamental to energy and quantum mechanics, you start with, the Universe has a given amount of energy. And you can invest that energy into a lot of little things, or a few big things. You're going to be able to get it back again and reinvest it. But eternally the Universe has that the big things cannot happen as often, so the novae then are really very infrequent, earthquakes are not so very frequent, mosquitoes are very high frequency. The smaller the more frequent, that's the way of energy behaviors.

So that the earthquakes occur on the land, rarely do you have enough energy or motion or work to break the triple bond, but very frequently we have enough energy to disturb the water only double bond, and even more frequently do we have enough energy to disturb the air. So we find then the waves in the crystalline, the earthquake wave is just really a little tremor a very small wave. But our waves in the water can get up to as much as a ten-story building in height, and the waves in the air get up to a mile high. So it takes relatively little energy to make enormous disturbances in the atmosphere, and relatively small to make disturbances in liquid, but rarely, rarely enough to have earthquakes. Sea quake, every day almost, and air quake all the time.

Now, the interface between the liquid and the gases, and this one with very high frequency untoward enormous stresses are operative so you just cannot go out with a ship on the sea unless you really develop an engineering capability dealing in principles in every kind of way, really understanding tension and compression in an extraordinary way, understanding hydraulics and pneumatics in very fundamental ways.

O.K. on the land, as you do, you have a job, and you work for eight hours and you call it a day. You can close all the shutters on the cottage and say that's the end of it. At sea you can't shut down. It's a twenty-four hour job. You are just simply continually coming to magnitudes of force interaction with you and your ship, that you've just got to be on the job so And then live twenty-four hours, and only say, if we had a long day, maybe had a 12 hour day on the land, you'd have at least twice as much experience at sea, because you have 24 hours out of everyday of experience instead of twelve. So the experience piled up very rapidly, and the severity of the untoward events very high frequency, therefore, those people who did come back were very aware that there were very many who didn't come back, and they went into anticipation, this is our friend "comprehensive anticipatory design science," what are all the things you are going to have to anticipate? Furthermore your ship you had to carry, if you were going to get any distance, you had to carry lots of food. And it brings you into all kinds of problems supplying that crew.

So we find the ship going very rapidly, differentiating into pure tension and pure compression. Getting into what does make flexible cables. We've been into a lot of that. I've been into necklaces and structures with you. So you understand what I'm saying here. But the ship really very quickly accelerated man's familiarity with differentiated tension and compressioning, and angular controls, leverage advantages, whatever it may be. And you find the earliest known picture of a ship is one on the caves of one of the priests in Egypt, and that first ship, if you are an engineer will recognize she is a good size ship. Her complexity technologically was several masts. The tensionings and the compressionings and the triangulations that are in it, are just phenomenal. At that time the most and the tools that are depicted on the walls of that Egyptian priest were very, very advanced tools for making the ship in contradistinction to anything being used on land at that time a wooden plow. The tools of the land were just childish in comparison to the tools of the sea.

That ship, quite clearly as anybody gets into such matters as the evolutionary rate at which technology does improve, would realize that that ship had been in development for 50,000 years. She was a fantastically mature affair. I'm not saying that ship, that was built there, but the information that went in there that was actually coped with and employed in pure principle to make that ship, was of thousands of years accumulation.

And number one on the land, take you get this seaquake. If a flood comes long you are completely licked. On the sea, it's a flood all the time. So you're designed for a flood and you'd better stay on top of it. And your castle won't stay on top of it. So you can't have that stone kind of thing out there on the sea. Gradually I became, as more I studied these matters, the more I became aware that the science and engineering of building of ships of the sea, and later of the sky, were thousands of years ahead of the art of just building on the land anything that just had weight and was strong and didn't tip over, with gravity holding it together.

Part 7

So, even as I grew up, we had the insurance companies saying, you know, "strong as the rock of Gibraltar." The idea was just inertia. And if we don't get over that idea of the inertia and society is as yet not over it, the last great walls were those of the Maginot line and suddenly, boom! with World War II it's all over. Why? What happened was that in World War I the submarine coming along. The tank and the submarine were coming out of the sea. They are technology of the sea. And they simply climbed up on the up to this time you couldn't carry any great cargoes on the land at all. The great railroads began to carry great cargoes, but you had to have the great canals you had to float things, but with the ocean you can have incredibly large ships. Once you load your cargo you can get it thousands of miles out and ships could carry loads that human beings couldn't carry on their backs, and they couldn't carry on the backs of animals. Sir Halford MacKinder showed the English long ago that when the railroad came along, they started the marine railway. The first railway was the marine railway, and they built the ship to let it down on the sea, using gravity to accelerate it in, and you had, then, with the marine railway the ship could tip over. But they can then double the idea so that your ship won't tip over, and this became the railroad, and they ran the tracks back on the land, developed the steam engine for the ship, and they said put it on the dock engine and ran it back on the land. So Halford MacKinder showed the English that the railroads were the ship technology coming back up on the land this advanced engineering really coming up on the land, and he warned the English that the coastline was not where they thought it was. Because of the ability to carry great cargoes suddenly up on the land.

But the World War II tanks, and so forth, what was called the Blitzkrieg, was the water technology coming up on the land. Because on the land you had siege, it was a trench war you just stay in, siege, siege, siege. But what happened long, long ago, was that human beings were developing city states, and there were successful city states being such as Mycenae. Sometimes they became so successful that they had a chance to also get into producing boats, and probably the fall of Troy is the beginning of the city state masters building ships, and the Greeks had these ships, and they were able then to come up to the castle. Up to this time, the people outside the walls they would be starved. But suddenly the invaders came along with ships, and the ships could keep going off the people inside of Troy just had the most food and they thought it was just going to be great, and the people outside were just going to starve. But the people who were coming along were not starving. They had ships bringing in incredible cargoes. So suddenly the "line of supply" became to be the new grand strategy of who was going to survive on our planet.

We find then, at the time, you look in Italy all those great castellos commanding the different valleys. And their great overlords giving themselves any name they wanted to. And, suddenly, the man who has been developing ships, coming into he's able to carry enormous canons and so forth he comes into the harbor in Italy, and there's a great castello there, and he just let it have a couple of shots. And he says now, I don't want you to know anymore about my grand strategy, because, at sea three fourth of the earth being covered by water, the people who then built ships, and built them to carry great cargoes from great distances it was an enormous, extraordinary risk to do it, did not tell the other man where they were going, or when they would be back, or what they were going to have on board, because the ocean is so big, and with the curvature of the earth, you'd say that man's down under the horizon 14 miles away from a sailing ship. And so that the sea kept his secrets. The people then who went to sea, and were going to produce enormous wealth by the "synergetics" of getting resources that exist over here that don't exist at home, and other resources that exist at home that seem to have no usefulness and they bring these two together and suddenly they produce something of enormous advantage, and great wealth is then generated. So, when I was young, the expression still was very, very prevalent, because I actually grew up with just the tail end of the clipper ship times. And the saying, "Just wait til my ship comes in" one ship in and it's a fortune. So, it was an enormous big risk to build that thing, but if she could endure, it would work. But you didn't want at no time at all when you go to sea, you find that the people who were able to build the very best ships had to be very powerful overlords on the land. Because they had to be able to say, "I'm going to build a ship." And they had to be able to say "I want all of you people to produce all you woodworkers come down and build my ship. And I want all you metal workers to come work on my ship. I want all you people who have been sewing and making clothes, I want you to get to making sails for my ship. They had to command the whole economy, and they had to say, now all you people that grow food do it for the people who are working on my ship. It had to be a very powerful overlord.

And to consolidate they had to have very good advisor, very good designer who was well appraised of the experiences of others before us. So he builds his great risky ship. Then there is another overlord , who isn't nearly as powerful, and he's very jealous of him, so he says "This is easy, I'm going to just build a smaller ship, and I'm going to wait outside the harbor until the night before he gets home, and we'll just take him over." And piracy became very popular. And, simply a question, on the water incidentally, at no time historically could the people on the land anywhere enforce their laws out on the water any further than you could throw something a projectile and the three mile limit and so forth. But three quarters of the earth is outside the law, and the people who then lived in that water-ocean world really became world people were inherently outlaws. And you find that the top ones are called sovereigns, and the other ones are just pirates. So the great pirate became sovereign and gained a great deal of respect; in fact they told everyone in the world just exactly how you carry on. And they set the standards. But finally what came about that changed a lot of this is mathematics.

The, I did not talk to you about the Arabic numerals, did I? The Arabic numerals and the Roman numerals. You're familiar with the Roman numerals, but did you ever try to do any multiplication with Roman numerals? Or division? How did you get on? You don't get on. The Roman numerals were invented again I've talked about power structure. The power structure man could have anybody, he could be very ignorant, a slave and say, I want you to stand here, and every time a sheep goes by, make a scratch. It was a scoring system and it had to do with things that kept life going. This was the wealth. So every time a bag of wheat goes by you make a scratch. And then there was a supervisor, and he'd come along and make a secondary kind of his check mark. This is why we have the "v" check mark today.

So, we have the scoring, and people, the whole Mediterranean world, the Roman empire is using this scoring system. Not until 700 A.D. did we come into what you and I were taught historically was civilization around that Mediterranean World in 700 A.D. the Arabic numerals began to come in, but they were employed by people as a shorthand for the roman numerals. So it was easier to go like that than to make three marks. And they were just thought of that way. The Arabic numerals, however, I'm quite they had the cipher, and in the scoring system you can't eat "no sheep" so you didn't need a scoring symbol for "no sheep." You didn't want to know exactly how many "no sheep" there were. There was no need for it. So the cipher had absolutely no meaning to these people who used roman numerals because it was a scoring system. So they thought that the cipher of the Arabic numerals was some sort of a decoration, sort of a period that you put at the end of your work or whatever it is. And, so the Arabic numerals, then, came into the Roman world, the total Mediterranean world in 700 A.D. It was not until 500 years later, 1200 A.D. that a treatise is written by a Latin in North Africa explaining the function of the cipher.

Now, my own speculative, going back into things of archeology of the sea, which I have been so interested in, and the evolution of the design of ships at various places due to the kinds of woods they had and the kinds of water they had the fish or whatever it might be (I'm not forgetting my Arabic numerals and so forth,) but, just as I mentioned earlier, an archeology of the sea where I was very fundamentally aware as a sailor that in the, they were building ships in the Sea of Arabia, exactly as they described being built in the Bible.

When human beings did go out on the water and were safely back, they began to like that particular ship very, very much. And you couldn't get those people who were building the ships, and sailing them, to change once they had found a fairly successful one. So, I found that the boats all around the world, they were quite different as you went around one cape into another the fishing conditions were different, the seas were different, the different woods to work with. And so they were fascinating to me, the different types there were around the world, but they had been holding steady for thousands of years. And I could see the interrelationship, and I could see which one came before the other. So I saw then there really was a visible evolution, an archeology, and the sea was still operating over the thousands of years, and the land one was over long ago, and we're just unburying it uncovering it and trying to put some strands together. But this was something from which you could really get tremendous information from. The fact that you could carry those cargoes enormous distances, and that people were still using ships in exactly the same way they had been one can still go to India today and still see the numbers of the extraordinary boats of yesterday that have been running the monsoon seas for thousands of those captains say they have been sailing between Africa and India for 10,000 years. That's their own reckoning. But there has been very, very little evolutionary change, and you learn exactly which ship has come before the other, and why they the kind of winds there were, the conditions that they did what they did, and so I became tremendously interested in being able to explain history from the water side in contradistinction to trying to piece it together archaeologically on the land side. Though there were relatively few people there it had to make sense, it was an engineering kind of logic that would be much more revealing, I felt, than the kinds of things that people could make with their superstitions, and so forth on the land. They could kid themselves into even though this is historically the wait it was, it didn't necessarily have to be very logical.

The, I come back to the abacus. I am quite confident, I spoke to you about the probability of life really beginning on those South Sea Islands, and what I'm going to explain to you now, is tending to prove to be correct. My theory of a half century goes is getting to be very, highly substantiated.

During World War I, beginning at the outset of World War I, the Germans controlled the Caroline Islands in the Pacific, and on one of the Caroline Islands I think it was the most eastward of them, the German commander suddenly found himself being the English ships would come in and take him over. He wanted to get word quickly because World War I had not been announced. He wanted to get word to his commander who was on an island l,000 miles to the westward. There was a legend on the islands that the people, the sailors with their outrigger canoes, very fast-sailing prowers that they were able to go off shore, off of soundings, they could somehow or other were able to navigate, and... So he gave a message to the leading navigator boatman there, and asked him if he could get this message to his commander 1,000 miles westward. The answer came back in a few weeks. He had done so! This is the first time the Europeans ever knew that the Pacific Island sailors did know how to sail off soundings, and work on celestial navigation of some kind. There was an enormous European conceit that went along with the Magellans and the Drakes and so forth going around the world seeming to be very superior with their ships. And thinking about those naked people in the Pacific, "They don't know anything they are very ignorant people naked."

Since World War II when the United States had a very large mandate to deal with in the Pacific, the navies had to do a great deal of work, and it is now generally conceded by the students of Maritime Science, that navigation clearly began in the South Seas, in the Pacific. There are various things that I can tell you about this that are to me very fascinating, because I became a student of this subject.

The, I'm going to take a large map of the world and we can go, for instance, to my map over here. The Pacific, the great Pacific basin, all this enormous area in here here we're looking at it, the South Seas are in here, and in this enormous Pacific basin there is something very important. The language is all the same language for this enormous area. There are alliterations and dialects that come from it, but it is all one language. There is a Professor who was at my Southern Illinois University in Carbondale, Illinois. And then he went out to the East-West Institute in Hawaii, and he was a great expert on that language, and he also then, put the problem, then, into the computer. Because you can tell, if you are an expert in languages, what is an alliteration what is the prominent way of saying this and the ignorant way of saying it how things change. Taking all the pronunciations of the Pacific and using vectors, he found that all the languages of the Pacific, which are all the same, all went back to the island of New Britain, just east of New Guinea right here.

Part 8

Now, in the you get into New Guinea and you get over a mountain, and there's another valley, and there's people. Valley after valley and there are hundreds and hundreds of tribes, all speaking completely different languages nothing to do with each other. The minute you get on the land, and the difficulty of getting from here to there, you get really, really separate languages. But these water people all the same language due to the fact that they can go incredible distances on the sea. In the history of the Maori, who had been to Hawaii, and historically it is know that they made several trips from your friend Jim Michener wrote this beautiful book, HAWAII, they made several trips, times they had been up in the Pacific, and then gone back to New Zealand where their headquarters are now. But those have been hundreds of years apart, before they've gone back to for the moment some kind of headquarters.

In the language of the water people of the Pacific, the Maori, they were thought by the Europeans to be extraordinarily ignorant, because they said they could only count up to two. They were using the binary system long, long ago. And later we get into the computer world and we discover that this is the way to carry on, so that so they have to revise their appraisal of people on this basis-instead of that they couldn't do any better.

Also, all these water people are considered to be a very low order of man, because in the first place, they didn't have any literature. Anybody who had any culture would have a literature. Now the fact is, that if you live on the sea you can't have any library out on a raft. The ocean is going to go all over you, and that's not the way you're going to handle your information printed, on paper and so forth. The Maori have kept their history entirely by memory. And they teach their children the history. And when you come to the land, places where the Maori really exist from time to time they have these long houses, and they have columns of the house, and the ribs of the roof which are originally the ribs of the ship, and each of these columns is an ancestor. And they are able to sing their chants about their ancestors they are able to go back about 100 ancestors, and I doubt if you can go back four or five. They really memorize it and the words in their chants say things they don't even know what they mean, but from father to son they have learned to say it that way. So if you do get any kind of key, you can really open it up. But, it has been, then, carried on verbally, rather than being on printed paper and so forth.

These water people, then, being naked, don't have any pockets, and you're going to have to have some important information. I'm getting to these what they call the long ears, where they split their ears, and ears can open like that, and in here these big discs. Those have turned out to be actually cardinal points of the compass. This was a very extraordinary piece. Nothing could get off your neck and your arms so these various rings and things that they are wearing are various ways in which you do calculations and things. These are the only pockets you have if you are naked on the sea that you're not going to lose very important information. Those things have been looked on as so strange to the European, so this is just a wild, wild people. A very mature, very economic, very efficient kind of information controlling devices.

Now, one of the most interesting things, you get into mathematics and NUMBERS, THE LANGUAGE OF SCIENCE, a beautiful book by (it will come in a little bit), one of the classics, there is a listing of the names for numbers in different languages of all the different tongues of our earth.

In the world of etymology, the world of the science of words, there are some words that are called "old words," that transcend any ability to trace where they came from or what they're all about. Amongst the "old words," there are very few of them, all the names for the numbers are old words they don't know where they came from, except for one word, the name for five is very often identified for the root we have for "hand." But all the other numbers are absolutely, there is no physical experience that is in anyway connected with the word. They apparently are abstractions words for abstractions. But at any rate, if you see the names for these numbers in different languages all around the world Tobias Dantzig is the author of Numbers, The Language of Science if you look at his list of these names, and I'm going to say to you, one of these two words means "one" and the other means "two" in these different languages, and "I want you to tell me which one means "one" and which one means "two," you'll never have any trouble. You suddenly find out that actually there is quite a great similarity. And it goes running through them. The names for the numbers have very important similarities.

And, the difference between "une", "one," the vowel sounds, "two" and "deux," are a very vowelish one and a very consonant one. And this holds true all through them. So that, one of the things you have to say, which is really very surprising in view of something I gave you about this language covering the whole Pacific, and the names for the numbers all around the world having extraordinary interrelationship. Either there was some kind of angel that flew around the world dropping leaflets of the names for numbers, or they somehow or other got around and the only way they could get around was by water; and the waters go everywhere.

So it looks as though the water people had been getting around the world for a very, very long time before we had any record of it. And the more you know about the water, the more you realize the wealth it really could command, you realize how secretive it was kept it is my own working assumption right now that man has known about this, what I call "the great merry-go-round," where the waters and the airs go like that around here take you into the Atlantic, into the Indian, and into the Pacific that this "merry-go-round," where 90% of humanity out here in the ends of the propeller this is unknown except to a very few people. This would get you anywhere you command the world. This is the command of the world! and people are not there to know about it. It was a key to the integration of the earth. And I told you, Admiral Hand startled the United States Navy by point out that the English had discovered long ago that there is only one ocean. And the center of that ocean is here. And at that time we hadn't gotten to the South Pole at all, so we knew very little about this.

Captain Cook went around it and he saw ice, but he didn't know the continent was there. That was the time when Hawaii gets rediscovered. So this is the, I want you to notice, then, here is New Zealand, it's where the Maori's come to. I've gone to see quite a little of them, and I've been down there to New Zealand three times, and the head of the, an anthropologist who is in the University of Aukland is a Maori, and he is what they call the "Keeper of the Chants." And I said, I wish he would tape recorders had just come, and they'd never had tape recorders before and I thought it would be a good idea if the chants were recorded, instead of having to be memorized the way they are. And he said, "No, that would be very much against our principles to have it done." You could only do the chants for other Maori and he said "You're not a Maori."

And so I got up a little joke and so forth, and I said that I really was a Maori, but I hadn't been back home for a couple hundred thousands years, and In New Zealand, one of the very interesting things, there is an island way down here, do you see? almost to the Antarctic? And there they have a very extraordinary mother-of-pearl. And the Maori have been taught to go down there and get that mother-of-pearl. And in all their houses where they have their ancestors these wooden statues, the eyes of the ancestors must be this particular mother-of-pearl. So I explained to the Maori that the reason that these are the eyes of the ancestors was that the ancestors knew about the merry-go-round of the water. The Maori themselves hadn't really realized it, by this time they had lost track of that fact. But if you were here and you had a ship. If you could stay afloat on a raft and not fall off, you could get around to all these places. And so I said, "A couple of hundred thousands years ago, I got stuck in the Atlantic for all these years, and I just got back, so would he let me make a tape recording but he wouldn't let me do it (Audience laughs).

I'm introducing to you what I am quite convinced about now, which is that the life really began the life began out here on this water, and that it comes into the land. I gave you about that, and about the tribes going, and the colors and so forth.

The anthropologists and the archaeologists have been assuming that life began here in some kind of Garden of Eden around here, and there has been gradually somebody went they went east to China and so forth, and then from China down here to India they said. And all of the assumption has been always that the arts and everything came from China into Southeast Asia was very last.

Part 9

If you go to your, in the University of Pennsylvania here, the museum the Museum of Science of the Museum of Pennsylvania has the task of doing archaeological work on the great diggings here in Northeast Thailand. And in Northeast Thailand we have a placed called Ban Chiang. If you will look at your National Geographic Magazine of Christmas time three years ago the cover story is of the Ban Chiang discovery. There they have found a culture, and many of the things in it, the quality of the culture, like discovering the Etruscans an incredibly beautiful design. Here we have a culture going back to what do we have Egypt, 8,000 years we have a culture going back 15,000 years. This is by far the earliest known. It is now completely conceded that this is where the Bronze age began. And this is where these water people came in here. In other words I am quite there is more and more realization now that life really has come this way rather than the working assumption of the Europeans that really, the land people, that they were so smart and so forth.

The, I think in your day you'll learn more and more that this will be confirmed, and confirmed and confirmed, whether it is by the very old people you find on the East Coast of Africa because the traffic that comes there across the Monsoon seas you go right across that Indian Ocean back and forth, and that's all involved in it.

And I've been as I said to you last time a great deal in Africa and in South Africa and the South East African Coast I really feel very powerfully what I'm telling you about. The Mombasa, the there was a Professor at the head of the architectural department at Capetown, Thornton White, when I was invited to go there in 1958. He was an architect who had been trained, first he went to Oxford and then he went to Harvard a cultural man. And Thornton White told me that after, just the end of World War II, the English were spending a great deal of money as yet, guarding the East Coast of Africa here against smuggling. There was enormous smugglings going on on the Indian Ocean. The British had decided at the time of World War II that the British Empire was all over. I think, historically, the people of England will get very great credit for, as far as I know, it's the first really top sovereignty that has ever really deliberately taken themselves apart. They assumed that they really were through. I talked to some of their leading statesmen as they were going to, coming into World War II and they said that this was going to happen. And they really deliberately pulled back, and pulled back, and pulled back. They've not really been pushed out, but they did absolutely voluntarily as a basic this chapter of history is all over.

At any rate, they were wondering whether to keep on looking out for this smuggling, so they had then, their Navy ships for years were used to prevent the smuggling. And Thorton White, my architectural friend, had been born in the island of Mauritius, here in the Indian Ocean here it is and he had done architectural town planning for the island of Mauritius. Because of his familiarity with this Indian Ocean area, he was made, designated by the English government, to look into the matter of whether it would be wise for the English to keep on trying to stop smuggling to protect the businesses they had here, or not. and so, he, in the monsoon seas, the ships that cross the Indian Ocean come down here and at Mombasa they beach them out and clean them, clean their bottoms and so forth and get them ready to go back this way. It's an annual thing, going with the winds. And the whole so the big fleet of the Indian Ocean, dhows, comes in there. So Thorton White went there at the time when there would be the highest concentration. When he got there, he said that he was taken to meet three or four of the top dhow captains, and it turned out that one that seemed to be there as far as they seemed to have an Admiral he was the Admiral of their fleet.

And Thorton White, I want you to remember that he had been to Oxford and to Harvard, and he had experienced what we call culture at any rate. Thorton White said to me that these dhow captains that he met the leading ones were the most cultured human beings he had ever met anywhere around the world. He said there was nothing to compare to them. And he was astonished at their knowledge! They said to him that there was a curve in human affairs, these curves of acceleration, and it gets then finally to a peak, and then where there is a fall-off, there is a shoulder form, and it really is a very constant curve nature has shown here. When something stops, it doesn't stop right away, there is a fall off. And they said, to their own satisfaction, they had actually been trading across the Indian Ocean, their forebears, their law and their knowledge of the sea, one captain to another, that they had been doing this for l0,000 years. And they said, here's a curve of 10,000 years, and if your the English can stop us, the deceleration curve would take 300 years, so you might as well tell them that. He said, incidentally, when he arrived there they knew he was coming, and they knew all about him. The underground had it very clear and they put on an exposition for him that showed him so he went back and told the English they might as well give it up, and they did give up that East Coast work.

But, in my, of greatest interest to me, Thorton was deeply convinced of their, that they had really good reason to believe that they had been navigating for at least l0,000 years. And when we get to finding there is an extraordinary culture 15,000 years ago, it would be right on that route. It gets to be very interesting.

I, my total subject in which I am dealing in here with you, I'm I gave you the name NAGA quite a long time ago, because, in the, there are the NAGAS right here in India. In this area where people first came up on the land, NAGA is a name that means "the sea serpent." And to the water people, if you looked at the horizon at any time at sea, you see that back, the snake's back of the great sea serpent's back out there. And if you come up on a mountain and look down on where the sea comes into the into the land, it is obviously that way we would call it a river, but it is quite clearly when you can see the shape of the water, he was a serpent sea serpent. And, incidentally, in the art form of the Maori's which is absolutely fascinating to them water is normal an island is a whole in the ocean. They look on the harbor as the penis of the ocean going into that land. The sea is a positive, and the land is a negative. I want you to really feel that the sea is normal, as in this great motion. It is a very different kind of a tradition, and it can it is mighty! And yet it has extraordinary things.

We find now the navigation they were doing. They were sailing by the rising of this star and the setting of that star I didn't mention these navigational tools that Thor Heyerdahl talks a lot about in his EASTER ISLAND book, where they found these strange sticks crossing, and so forth, which they thought was some kind of decoration and so forth but they were all navigational tools. Now, that's all thoroughly confirmed today. The NAGA is in Japan the name for the river is NAGALA, or really female NAGA. There is a great deal that goes into the kinds of things I talk to you about in my NAGA business.

The in the in Japan, the name for the roof, the ceiling of the house is the same is the name of the word for the bottom of the boat. I'm quite certain that the first people who began to get into in contradistinction to dug outs and outriggers and grass boats getting into ribs, where the stiff ribs made possible, really, very large bellied boats. And those ribs, then, the rib boat people, I was lucky to be in Cairo at the time when that sun boat was found about 20 years ago, and they let me in to see it.

That same year I visited Norway at Oslo and saw the boat that they had found deep in the mud the Viking boat. The Viking boat, and the Egyptian sun god boat were the same boats! Their plankings had been lashed together. They had their ribs, and they had their thwarts see the thwarting of the ribbing was made it was absolutely the same boat that I was astonished by it. I am quite certain then that while people learned to sail into the wind, as I gave you yesterday the business that you could tack and you can really work to windward, and people did work to the westward, in great contradistinction to the people who, probably, for other, in untold thousands of years, did drift on rafts. It's pretty easy to design a raft just take a number of logs falling into the sea and tie them together. And people did get around on rafts, so they had to drift where the currents took them, and where the winds took them.

But the people who began to develop the sailing boat, and the prevailing currents of the world are from west to east, so I think that this is what Thor Heyerdahl showed up in his KON TIKI, was that rafts could circumvent follow all those great currents of the Pacific, but I think that the early raft people who went from the South Seas, get up on the land, will also go over to the Americas, both the east and west coast of North America and the west coast of South America. But now I have a water people who are starting westward instead of going eastward. A very different kind of a world. And, you could if there was no wind blowing, you could row. And it is really interesting that and you could paddle. But the paddling dug outs were very poor the very best of them you see in Thailand today, the King's great barges, there were several hundred paddling sailors on board.

The Vikings had rowing. I think, then, people rowed to the westward. I think the Vikings are the water people completely out of this area because on the Viking boat in Norway there is a NAGA head, the most extraordinary kind of a sea serpent head. And it is very complexly designed, and it's exact counterpart has been found on the island of Borneo. I think, long before you could sail to windward, then you rowed to the windward, so that the prevailing winds coming from the west of the rowed boats got there a little earlier.

Part 10

And we get then the Viking boats coming to a cold country, and they're suddenly going to have to, it's winter, and they want to winter out. And you take your boats out, and you put them upside down. You're going to live under them. And you immediately have a land shelter, because they were designed for enormous sea so they can withstand the rains with no trouble at all, and the snow. Then I see them taking these boats and putting them, not only one, but bringing them together as a cross cross form, adds in. And we have then, and this is a church form, that we are going to call the nave of the boat the NAVE. This is an upside down boat. I am absolutely confident that all the ribbed buildings, and ribbed roofs and so forth came entirely out of turning boats upside down originally. They were not getting that kind of engineering except by virtue of the sea. Now, these things get to be quite exciting as I go on, and I found then that the water people did everything in the terms of the verbal carrying on.

So we find the Norsemen have the SAGA. We know the Japanese, are absolutely certain that they came from the South Seas somewhere, and their tales, and also you'll find this in Bali, the same word RAGA. These are the tales of the old people the chants. Whether it's the naga, the raga of the saga these are all the "how do you keep your history" entirely by word of mouth.

I'm just giving you a little bit of my feelings about the NAGA story, but I'll tell you, one of the parts of it that I find excites very many of the scientists. Remember the Garden of Eden story? And there is this, then, Garden of Eden, somewhere in Mesopotamia, in the Babylonian area somewhere in there. And, what I think went on all the time, because this has been able to be well established in the South Seas even today. The Chieftain of an Island a Chieftain is a strong man, as I gave you the big guy. And every once in a while his people begin to think he's not very good, and he needs to re-establish his credit. The Chieftain has always been able to go to the navigator, and the navigator on those islands live absolutely separately from the other people. They may teach their son, or they may teach somebody else's son, but they have an absolute tradition that kept them and the Chieftain sees that they are kept absolutely separate from the people. So the Chieftain says to the Navigator I need a miracle. The Chieftain doesn't know anything about this boat, but the Navigator knows how, then, to go into his swift sailing prower going off shore, he knows how to get to an island where nobody has been to before and he knows that on that island they have one of these things and so forth, that nobody is familiar with at home; so all he has to do is bring back something from this island and give it to the Chieftain, then the Chieftain holds this thing up and everybody realizes that he is an absolute miracle man again has been ordained by some great mystical power. So the navigators were always able to get the Chieftain some way of reestablishing himself so that there is no question that, we know all through that world, all the navigators were always kept separate. And those navigators then, finally when they begin to when they are crossing the Indian Ocean to the west landing in Mesopotamia, and eastern Africa, they began to go up on the land and they began to be both priests and astronomers. And using their astronomical things, did a great deal of the pyramiding and so forth to keep track of these astronomical data. And they were able then to tell the Pharaoh, the top man, what to do. And time and again they could give him but they kept the secrets themselves. This is all going to bring me back then, finally to mathematics and the Arabic numerals and so forth.

You've been quite a little while on this session, but I'm going to wind it up with the following: You remember your Garden of Eden story very, very well I'm sure.

The Priests, when the people began to catch onto something, promoted some kind of a story. And, the better the story, the more easily then they were able to hide their secret. They had then, this Garden of Eden Story, and this is when the human beings had then started going westward instead of going with the current.

In the orient, earlier, going with the rafts, so you went off in a raft, you said good-bye to people, and never saw anybody again, so there was really a continually dying while you are still alive. I want you to understand this. And you went, God blew you this way, and the tide went with you, you were always going along with God. But when you started sailing to windward, you seemed to be defying God. So these people who worked to the Westward, then, have to have a new rationalization of their going against God's wind so they really have then a God who lets them in on some information all right but you're going to get into trouble if you use it. This Garden of Eden Story.

I'm going to come back to, I want you to, so you'll have then, take a rib out of Adam and produces Eve. That's not a very credible story, the way to produce a woman is to take a rib from a man. The man was there and then the woman came out of him. At any rate, the people who did go to sea and learned gradually that the best of sea creatures are whales the seals and so forth, had ribs. So the rib cage became very, very impressive to the sailor. And they finally, then, tried it out in his own boat, which had been up to that time, reeds which always folded up and did not have any stiffness. So, as far as I am concerned, the rib of Eve part has also been absolutely fundamental thru the ages. The ship is always female. In the first place the ship has an insideness sort of a womb and so forth, you can understand why she's female. Ships have always been female.

So, I'm confident that Eve was the ship, and she was made possible by the ribs the rib cage, and the ship took Eve, NAGA, the sea the serpent, Naga the serpent showed her, the ship, that she could go around the world. The world was a sphere. That's all the apple is. This is a now we find that the great priests had, and the pharaohs prows would have an orb and two serpents going around the two ways you go either way and get there. This is very fundamental to the sailor.

I was asked to be at the opening ceremony of the Maritime Museum in Haifa a few years ago. And I was asked to speak at it. And they had been doing an enormous amount of discovery of things because this is the greatest museum of the Phoenicians. And they've been getting into so much diving and so forth, that a great deal of things have been brought up. And one of the most prominent of the coins is a sailor's coin is Janus is the God of the sailor, but it is two-faced. And everybody said this was because sailors are very unreliable people. But it isn't so. This was because a sailor knew you could go either direction and come right back home. You could go this way or that way and always come back to where you were. You'll find this very deep in the symbolism of the navigator-sailor-priest.

So, what I've just given you of the Garden of Eden Story, Eve was a ship and she was made possible by the rib, out of Adam's experience, because he had a rib cage so the ship has a rib. And NAGA the serpent, took her around and showed her the earth was an apple, a sphere, and from then on the King always had an Orb to hold, and he didn't know why the priests had him hold an orb. That's enough for this time. We'll stop for a little while. You've been very, very patient.


The word NAGA is a very basic word. The NA of NA-GA is the NA of NA-VY, or NA of Native. It is a NAtivity. NA and we have NA-vigate; NA-VI-GA, and the VI is the way of the sea a very powerful, fundamental kind of a root.

Part 11

In the area from Japan to Burma, this area, here's Burma back here. Japan to Burma. These people use something very extraordinary. The three way weaving. This ball is from the middle of that area. And this, you can see the triangle of what they call the three-way weaving. They make their baskets three way. All around the rest of the world, all the baskets, all weaving is two way, it's 90 degree. Pretty interesting that these water people use a three-way. And, so in their fish baskets, even enormous things they can put a whole animal in, are terribly strong, made out of bamboo and three-way weaving. The two way is very unstable, and the three-way completely stabilizes. You can see how it catches up to itself here.


I gave you the two triangles the other day. This one, you see this triangle here and another one here. And you can go just as far as you can until it gets to the center of the triangle and it can't go any further. This one here goes to the center of this triangle. There is a limit of possible travel between the centers of the triangles.

Now that three-way weaved area is also then, as far as I'm concerned, the water people, the world people, and I am quite confident we're going to learn more and more about this Naga. In the same Southeast African experience that I had, down in South Africa we had the Coloreds. People that we really don't know where they came from. Now I've learned in South Africa something that really fascinated me. I don't know whether you know, in Egypt we had Queen Hatshepsut. She was really one of the great rulers of Egypt. And she, it is recorded that she sent her people to the land of POON to get the pitches and things for her ships. The land of Poon is the it's this area in here, Somaliland and so forth. That's the land of Poon. I learned from the, and Rogers talks about this land of Poon, and the Egyptians. At any rate, I learned from the South Africans that the word "Poon" means, is the word red, r e d. The color red. And the land of Poon, we get to the Red Sea and so forth it is the Poon sea.

The Poon is a very interesting word because it also then relates to something we have spoken about here, the Pundit. It is the thinker. The person who would be able to calculate. We have the Poon of the "Poon"-icians, "Poon"-icians, later on the Phoenicians. The "Poon"icians were these red people. It seems like the coloreds might have been them. The "poon"icians, later on Phoenicians the "poon"ician Phoenician seem to be these same water people. And I think the "Ven"etian the Punic Wars were the wars of the Phoenicians and North Africa, the Latin Wars. So the "poon" also you get into the "pun" of a boat. We call it a punt. So the "poon" is both boat and it is the wisdom, and it really was a key to me about the concept of the "Poon"icians and so forth red.

Now, I'm up to I'm in such a speculative world with you here that I'm going to cut pretty quickly here, but I'd like to go a little more into the tracery of the mathematics. The mathematics which comes out of the Indian Ocean, out of the abacus, the ability to calculate. Again sliding rings very much as the water people had rings on their arms, and they slide rings beads on bamboo rods. The navigators coming up on the east coast of Africa and coming up into Mesopotamia and Babylon. And we have the very interesting interconnection now of the island of Crete and Mycenae on the land. But the water people and the Mycenaeans and the Cretans were, apparently, very closely interrelated. They have established now a complete relationship between Babylon and Crete. Crete was very particularly of importance in that Aegean world and the Eastern Mediterranean World. And it was completely unfortified because these were the water people, who were really absolutely controlling the waters, therefore they didn't need any fortification because nobody could get to the island. And I became particularly interested in Crete, and I have been there quite a number of times. And in the great palace of Knossos which then the Cretan civilization breaking down in about 1400, the palace of Knossos, in the King's quarters there are the king's symbol. The archaeologists call it the double axe. It is simply the hexagon strictly the hexagon. And you can draw the hexagon with two sides like this, one at the two opposite, and they call these the double axe, I don't know why, but at any rate, clearly it is the hexagon with the six radii and the six chords. And in the women's side the household side, they have the distaff. And this distaff sign, you find them in the walls a great deal on the distaff side is a square with a cross, it's like the English flag with the two crosses, a diagonal cross and a perpendicular cross. And, that's the distaff side. So there is your 60 degree angle in the King's side, and there is the 45-90 in the distaff side. In history I found it a fascinating matter that, going back to the history of science, and the history of scientific and technical artifacts, we have irrigation in India and so forth; and absolutely suddenly out of the complete void historically of science, we suddenly have quadratic equations in Ionion Greece. And this seemed to be a very abrupt manner. And everybody tends to think of those great geometries of the Greeks as the beginnings of mathematics. But the beginnings are really a very high level the quadratic equation. The one in Thompson the anthropologist at the, no the archaeologist at the Institute of Advanced Study at Princeton. He's also head of the archaeological teams American teams in Athens, and he restored the stoa, and I got to know him, and I said the following to him: As you go into Synergetic geometry with me you're going to get more and more into that triangle and so forth that I've already introduced you to and the tetrahedron, and the fundamentality of the triangle.

And here's this hexagon on the king's side, and this is a world of navigators where the king is a king because they ruled the seas the water people. And we find that their mathematics, and advantage was tied up completely with Babylon, coming from the Indian Ocean. So I became fascinated with the idea that because the navigator had been able to keep it a secret so completely up to this time, that the falling of the great palace of Knossos occurs when the really master water-ocean people are broken into by the lesser water people of the Aegean. And suddenly their mathematical tricks are taken over, and the Ionian Greeks represent, then, for the first time, mathematics coming out into the public domain. Mathematics had been there for a very long time, and this explains then this very suddenness of its appearing in history. It had been kept absolutely secret up to this time. Thompson thought this was a very reasonable working assumption. But what fascinated me most was that the king had kept, he was working in the 60 degreeness and had the people working in the 90 degreeness. I have already explained to you really, the difference between the squaring, and its inefficiency, and the enormous efficiency of using the triangle, and apparently this seems to be and I go back then into Solomon's seal or whatever it may be. We're getting into the triangles of the seals of highest wisdom and so forth. So the triangles were known back there, but it was known to the leading very powerful people, but not out in the public domain as the way to calculate.

Now, I'm not being deliberately slow. I'm changing my subject.

I've really opened up today historically talking about this Greek period and the Mycenaeans, the going to Troy and the siege of Troy and I spoke then about a grand strategy of land people through a very long time while man didn't know much about boats land strategy was just bigger and higher and heavier fortresses. The city-state being a very successful form of invention. For the powerful people were able to keep themselves very powerful with it. Have all the things inside the walls, and the people outside starving. But Troy seems to me, and Homer, to be the beginnings of the realization that the water begins to bring a line of supply and then you could besiege these great castles. I point out to you, then, that in Italy in the early times Venice. Nothing could be more impressive than Venice, because Venice all the rest of Italy was great castello walls, and Venice, absolutely no walls whatsoever. And these were then the great water people, and the water people were gradually taking over on the land people. And so that Venice didn't need any fortification, because they controlled the seas.

We find, then, the rest of Italy very hostile towards Venice because they were able then to break the great security of the castello they were moving their ships around and bringing in now we have, up to this time of Venice, and the more that I can see of history, the Orient is the beginnings, and the Southeast Orient is the very earliest beginnings, and the knowledge that was acquired and the culture is very, very great. And nothing is more extraordinarily impressive than the ancient Chinese history of what humanity really had learned. Where we have quaternary alloys of metals deliberately quaternary alloys of metals back in 400 b.c. So now we know that metals began in Southeast Asia going back thousands of years. So that, there was in the game of the people who were able to sail to the windward, they would come back to the leeward, and they were able to go back home and get great riches, and found the people opening up the frontiers were very strong people, but had great needs, and they were able then to continually cash in to the westward.

So the European world opening up then, around the Mediterranean, brought about then a market for goods from the Orient. And there were four main routes from the Orient. You could come north, by Lake Baikal, the sea of Aesoph and the Caspian Sea, the Black Sea, and in through the Bosporus and what is today the old Alexandria but the point is you were coming into the North of the Aegean. And this was the Orient, and from there on you could get water born, and you could then get to various ports and goods could get gradually up into the opening up of Northern Europe.

Then there was another route coming over Sinkiang and the Khyber Pass thru Persia and to the right across Mesopotamia to the Asia Minor Coast there, or it could come down into the sea of Arabia. And there was the traffic coming via the Indian Ocean and by caravanning over Arabia to the Mediterranean, and the fourth great route is coming across the Indian Ocean to East Africa and then getting onto the Nile and coming North to the Mediterranean. You have four main routes, and these four main routes bringing great riches to Europe were of extraordinary importance to the masters of the earth, whomever they might be, the great masters of wealth, and particularly the water people; but the great traders and people who had made the most out of integrating the wealth of remote people, then there was great battling over these basic routes.

Part 12

I see something that goes on then at the eastern end of the Mediterranean area where today we're having all the Israeli-Arab problems and so forth. I've been on the Committee of the Mayor of Jerusalem on an International Committee which he formed to advise him on Jerusalem to try to keep the multi-world viewpoint operative in Jerusalem. And in my studying of Jerusalem and its history, it is extraordinary the numbers of times that it has changed hands, and what it apparently is what I spoke to you about the Sea of Aesoph, and that there is a northerly route, there is a predominantly southerly there were four routes, but I could break them into two northerlies and two southerlies. The overland Sea of Aesoph one is really the Marco Polo kind of route. Now, I say on the three other ones, you come pretty south because you get into Persia, and they tend to get to the Arabian Gulf or they can come overland. But, there is enormous competition between who is going to control the taking from the orient and cashing-in in Europe.

And I see, then, that halfway between the north and the south routes would be Jerusalem. Jerusalem, then, is where the north became very powerful and the people of the north came in, and it was just the maximum outpost that you could reach. And the southerly people came in, and they would lick them. So you have Egypt trying to take over, and we had to finally get where the northerlies like the Crusaders coming down and fighting the Saracens in the South. The, in that extraordinary battle of the Mediterranean, we find that the last great chapter that is the chapter of Venice which is taken over from the Phoenicians Venetians, and the Crete and so forth.

And, suddenly, the mathematics that I have spoken to you about, becomes so improved, with Arabic numerals, that we have the King of Portugal, then suddenly with mathematical capability you've calculated a great deal better about building ships. You've calculated very much better for your navigation, so Henry the Navigator, opens up an entirely new world, and building really big rib ships much bigger, more powerful, and going from Europe right around Africa all the way to India and the Orient, China. Very much better than the interrupted routes that you had coming through the Near East, where you had overland, and water, many transfer points but you could go all the way from Europe, all the way to the Orient.

And this came about due to the enormously improved technology that developed also in mathematical capability. So that the, from the time of the Leonardos on, you see there were no more Leonardos, because the great masters of the great land areas who were able to build ships, then really took their Leonardos to sea with them, and they became really the great designing Admirals of the fleets designing extraordinary ships and more and more technology of the sea.

And so, what happened, starting with Troy, is that the line of supply took over on the fortification. And, as, getting very much later to World War II, World War I, rather. W.W.I was a question of the line of supply and we had gotten to the point where these great navies of the Atlantic, where the Spanish ran it called the Spanish Main for a long time, all this enormous amount of gold they were taking out of South America and Central America suddenly that is broken. But we have firstly the Portuguese, and then the Spanish both keep working north, more northerly people apparently getting a little greater strength. And we have what we call the British Isles then. All this picture goes on in this piece here, where they've taken from here, where the 52% of humanity's longest, old history, developing enormous riches, and taking its wisdom and its riches to here. The British Isles, then, became the unsinkable flagships, commanding the most harbors of the most customers, and those islands were just fought over by water people, so the Irish Coast, there is hardly a foot along it that hasn't had bloody battles. Along the Irish Coast, the Scottish Coast, everybody saying who can control those Isles. So the Anglos and the Jutes are long ago displaced, and very powerful people kept pouring in there to see who was going to control it. And as I said, whoever controlled that, then, controlled the great sea traffic between the orient and Europe.

But the, from now on, everything is line of supply. I said then, we have the navy battles, in contradistinction to land I was a regular United States Naval Officer at the time of World War I, and it was said that when the High Seas Fleet comes out or the two High Seas Fleets come there would be, you'd have what you call a contact. And with contact, they said, you'll know within the first or the second salvo who's going to run the world for the next 25 years. You compare your hardware. And it really was a matter of engineering design by now. You had to have good skills of seamanship sure. But the big thing was, do you have guns that could outperform? who could carry the greatest hitting power, the greatest distance, in the shortest time with the greatest accuracy and the least effort. And, so, nothing was more really secret on these ships than with two ships of the same tonnage, they looked the same, they are designed with about the same experience humanity has had by now over the seas, so they can make it a little bigger type so there are all kinds of different types of ships for different purposes, whether it is a destroyer or whatever it is tonnage. And you don't know until contact who with the same tonnage can outdo do more with the same tonnage than the other man. This was the most highly classified of all the information of the navies and of the air, whatever it is. And what goes on in the "puppetry" warfare between Russia and the United States is trying to keep sounding out the other guy, and see if you can see what he is going to do with his tonnage. The scale can always get tipped, and both sides can keep up apparently about the same, but suddenly, contact. Who does more with the same, or more with less?

Now, that brings you up to very modern strategy. At any rate, I spoke about Navy then is contact. And it's all over very quickly. So, we have World War II, the Blitzkreig was simply the sea warfare coming up for contact on the land. So the ship of the sky and the tank were simply the submarine coming up on land with wheels on it, and really a mobile fortress. We have the Maginot line was the end, historically, of the bigger and heavier and higher the walls, the more secure. Suddenly Blitzkreig just went right over it, and it didn't count anymore. This was really, historically, much more important than people can realize, because it has to do then with the fundamental sort of mobility, and what comes out of the sea, and the engineering. I've given you all kinds of recounts where we were looking at people doing all the right things for the wrong reasons, and doing things out of misassumptions of economics, but mainly I want to review then what the technology of it was, And, so, the big transition that begins with the fall of Troy ends with the Maginot line of the static of just building so that "might does the trick." From now on it really is capability. Improved doing more with less. And so we go very rapidly into the sky now where one little airplane suddenly sinks a whole battle cruiser, as General Mitchell saw it can do way back just after World War I.

And so, I'm now trying to confront you with patterns of very big significance, where there are very great changes, and to get a feeling about their doing more with less on the sea. Because when I came into the Navy, then, with the kind of history that I do have, that I have reviewed with you, where suddenly things are happening very rapidly. All of the "impossible" things were happening. I was then trained as a United States Naval Officer was, in the following terms. We suddenly had the telegraph, back in the beginning of the l9th century. But Abraham Lincoln was the first head of state to be wired by telegraph to each of the battle fronts. Up to this time, the Head of State, the head man had to be present at the critical battle, to make the critical decisions but suddenly he could be in a central position. And this was a very new game. But there were no wires from the city of Washington, Abraham Lincoln, to the Navy.

Suddenly World War I and we did have the radio, and we assumed that the enemy could decipher and decode you, and therefore we didn't send messages by radio, that would be of a highly strategic nature. Those messages had to go by courier. And the courier couldn't go any faster than a ship could go. Historically, then, once you put somebody in command of the navy, and really the navy was a risk of the most powerful people on the land the land owners began to really go to sea with their ships. They got into a new kind of a game with the world. And they were interested in the commerce, and they had a lot of people, then, doing the farming they're not doing that farming anymore themselves that's out.

The big attention, then, and the power that said we were going to go to war was in the sea. And the masters of the water-ocean world, then, had in the navy they were, whoever was in command of the navy, you had all the powers of that nation. In fact, there is no such thing as a second hand navy the capability to run the world was in that navy, so when that navy went to sea, it had to have something on board there. The people who were in the highest authority, had to have someone on board there they could trust. Very capable, that really understood the world, and would think world. So the training of a naval officer was a very different kind of training than the training of the land. And so you were put in every type of ship. You were put into a navy yard so that you would get to be an industrialist. You would be put into jurisprudence here so that you would understand those matters at sea. You were put into state craft as a naval attach, but the assignments were very short six months, nine months, a year and they'd get you onto the next one. They had to get you absolutely comprehensivists. I found it absolutely exciting that they have Harvard and the land Universities going in for specialization, the navy went in exactly the opposite direction, they picked out the very brightest of every class, and first they sent them to the Bureau of Ships which is a series of ships itself, and they did everything they could to make the naval officer a COMPREHENSIVIST.

Now, there was the power structure that had to be the comprehensivist, and the people had to be divided. And, I ran into a completely different world when I got into the Navy, and I was astonished by it by the absolute line of the United States Navy. You were being trained so that if your senior were killed, you could take over. Therefore you had to be able to take over, be skipper of the ship and I was skipper of several ships in the navy. If your Admiral went over, then you had to take over the fleet.

The naval officers being trained in this way, to be comprehensivists, to be absolutely capable of taking over. And the promotion of the naval officers in contradistinction to the army the army was done by the number, and it was just a matter of keeping succeeding by the number. But the Navy was entirely by selection. After Lt. Commander, to get where there is gold on your cap, this is entirely by selection so that whoever were the big powers of the world, if they liked this young man, and they really thought he was going to come they could move him right up to Admiral of the Fleet overnight. It was, then, a very different kind of service, and the kind of information I came into was fascinating because, at the time of World War I, the world had been run up to that time by the British Empire. The United States had no ambitions to be a world people at all, and the United States got drawn in on trying to save democracy. As we said, both sides, the Germans and the English, tried to bring her in, because the question of the who was going to run they were interested in who was going to run the water-ocean world.

Part 13

And the British Navy then the Germans said these people are guarding the surface of the sea. And they went underwater and they went above the water. You've got an entirely new geometry. And they began to sink ship after ship the line of supply was what counted, and the war had been joined in Europe and France if it ever got over onto that British Isle that's what they were after. You're moving out towards that's the command of the world. And so, if they got over to the mainland they were all through. The point where, then, the masters of the water-ocean world found that their ships were all getting sunk, and they were unable, then, to get the show going, and they were about to lose, when actually two things happened. For one they got the United States to come in and their productivity was enormous. And I, in the Navy, I then got into the service, I was Aide for Secret Information for the Admiral who was Commander of the Cruiser and Transport force when we took a million people across the ocean with 130 ships, and the this is a very fascinating kind of a matter to have that kind of training.

Now, at the time that I came into the Navy as a young naval officer at this point the British said, "We have to have all the ships in the United States producing an enormous number of ships have been sunk, and they, for the first time in history, the British said we'll allow the American Navy to come to parity with the English Navy. And I was amongst the young naval officers being trained at the time when the masters of the water-ocean world were having to tell these young officers in the American Navy, how you run the world. The United States had never been in on this before, but suddenly I was in on a very extraordinary moment where I was really being brought into world grand strategy. One reason, I think, and I am able to talk this way is because of this kind of comprehensive training.

So what began to fascinate me very much was the idea that Navy you could float an incredible weight. Therefore anything that man had ever found out scientifically or technically about the world, he had it on board. And he could do incredible things.

Now, I said to myself, "How did it happen, then, I've been doing all this training, and I know how to run my ship I really know what's going on around the world here, and why do we have this contact, and why do we have to take all the highest capability of man into this moment of kill?"

And then this brought me into great, great intimacy with Thomas Malthus. I don't know whether you how much you know about Thomas Malthus, but I also point out to you that as of the what's been called the British Empire and known as that for a very long while to me is a misnomer. If you get into Drake and Queen Elizabeth backing Drake, as an incredible pirate, and a very daring pirate and he was able then, he ruined the Spanish and the English were able to take over Queen Elizabeth.

But, it was a game of pirates against pirates, and, what became what's called the English Empire, was really the people who were risking enormous wealth. Queen Elizabeth the First was secretly backing Drake to do all this, and she kept telling the Spanish that she wasn't. But at any rate, the people who did the risking, going to the sea, went after great riches, and that was really all that counted. The East India Company then was the name of the great risking organization of Queen Elizabeth's, and we find then, the East India Company, it's task these are world people, they are water people they are world people. And their job is at sea.

Now the western end of the Orient to Europe run was the British Isles, and the British Isles, then, a place where you're going to have to refit your ship or you're going to have to build a new ship. This was, then, where you did a lot of your mounting of your capability to be at sea. And the English Isles do have beautiful wood, and all kinds of mines, and earlier they had tin, and Caesar had come there for that tin, that's how the Romans built roads all the way from Italy thru Europe to get to England for the tin. And these British Isles, then, were very rich, and not only did they command all these harbors of their customers, but it was a great terminal place to rebuild your ship. And because the ships were either built anew, or rebuilt there, they also had to have the crews. And, I was Visiting Professor at the University of Bristol, a few years ago, and when I was there, you can still go down and see down by the waterfront there is where Robert Lewis Stevenson wrote his TREASURE ISLAND and many of his other stories about the Great Pirates. But down there are brothels there's a brothel there that has been there for hundreds and hundreds of years where they hit the men over the head as they came out of the brothels and threw them on board of the ships. As they did not enlist this was not the British Empire, this was not the British people but Britons got thrown on board the ships, and as these ships appeared all around the world they had Britons on board, so they got to be known as the British Empire.

But it really never was the ambition of the British people to run the world. It was entirely a matter of the Great East India Company. Now the East India Company had a college for the training of all of its officers and all of its servants. The East India Company College is still there, it's a very beautiful campus that you can go to in England, and the Professor of Political Economics of the East India Company was, then, Sir Thomas Malthus Thomas Malthus. Now Thomas Malthus, I want you to realize that, it was often said at this time that "the sun never sets on the British Empire." Here was a very extraordinary kind of empire, because all the empires that you and I read about historically, this Genghis Kahn, or even Alexander the Great everything is around here. It's a little postage stamp area of total earth. What was called civilization in those days, about 15% of the surface of our earth really very small. But these were the great empires and as far as anybody could see, the maps went to no you didn't know where the maps go to out here, so they were flat empires. They were open what I call postage stamp they went out to "infinity," and out beyond them you came to wild people, and then you'd better not go any further. So that the dragons... And the British Empire, unlike that, comes after Magellan has gone around, and Drake has gone around, and it is now in the public domain. we have the sphere.

And Thomas Malthus is the first economist in the history of man to get all the economic data from all around a closed system spherical earth. This is absolutely different from a flat plane that goes to "infinity." And Thomas Malthus being the first to get all the date from around a closed world, when he did get his data he published a book, and then ten years later he published a second book, when he had much more data These were all the vital statistics because the masters of the water-ocean world, they had in the different places around the world, their Ambassadors. And the Ambassador might be the King's brother, he really was a hostage, and they got up quite a game, finally of finding the gold that was being stolen at sea the Spanish gold being stolen. So, instead of having gold in their ships to go trading, they then had their king's brother as a hostage, and they called it China or whatever it may be, and they said annually we go over the book and find out which company owes the other. That's where the balance of trade game came in to get the gold off of the sea. And then we'll just move the gold from the bank of England's vault, to the Chinese vault to the English vault, or visa-versa. So they were able to get the gold off the sea and avoid the hijacking.

But, the point was Thomas Malthus was the first political economist who received the vital economic statistics from all around the world, and he was able then to say, in his second book, in l8l0 he confirmed his first where he said, "Quite clearly man is reproducing himself at a geometrical rate, and producing goods to support himself only at an arithmetical rate. Therefore, quite clearly, man is designed to be a failure." Now, up to this time you had an infinite world. You might not like what is going on, but because it was an infinite world, then you had an infinite number of gods, and you had an infinite number of hopes that might come true.

But, Thomas Malthus said, "This is all there is, there isn't any more it's a closed system, and there obviously is nowhere enough to go around." And it is a very, very different new way of looking at things.

O.K. We find then the great masters of the water-ocean world had their great scientific servant telling them that man was quite clearly designed to be a failure. The same masters of the water-ocean world then began to take their scientists, find the scientists had microscopes could see things that the masters of the water-ocean world couldn't see; and say "Scientists, you've got a very different kind of eyes", and by this time they had found steam and they said "Oh you scientists see all kinds of things!", therefore they began to have ships going around the world with biologists and geologists amongst them Darwin, but other biologists, to find and discover resources which could be exploited around the world that would not be recognized by man with just the naked eye of the old sailor.

Part 14

So Darwin, who was amongst the biologists being taken around the closed system world, found that this is all there all the other biologists these are all the species there are, and quite clearly there is an interrelatedness between the vertebrates and so forth, developed then a theory of how the design evolution occurred. And I spoke to you about the wild horse the other day, and the insemination by the most powerful stallion. So Darwin, then, explained it as "survival of only the fittest." Darwin said he did not mean any economic later on he was very annoyed when people said he made an economic inference. But the great masters of the water-ocean world said "quite clearly nowhere near enough to go around," man is supposed to be a failure, and "survival of only the fittest" and we, obviously, are the fittest. We're sitting right here on top of the heap and we're the best informed. We have the best ships, and we have everything well organized. So we could really understand the great powers really taking things over, and why they thought the way they did.

In England, contemporary with this, we have Karl Marx finding the data of Malthus, finding the data of Darwin which comes 35 or 40 years later. And he said, he agreed with both survival of the fittest and not, nowhere nearly enough to go around. Marx said, "Quite clearly the worker is the fittest because he knows how to handle the tools, he knows how to handle the stone and the wood, and he can handle the sea he is intimate with nature, and these other people are parasites."

We have, then, the basic, absolutely then this is the beginning of POWER STATECRAFT around the world. Now it's a scientific fact that there's not enough to go around, and it is survival only of the fittest. And that really starts then the two great poles of the so-called free enterprise and the appearance of socialism both assuming it has to be you or me.

Now there is something I would like to add to the things I didn't put before you yesterday about "no race." We have at the time of, all right thru history, it is just clear to me, that power, the "Big Man," the king and the nobles, who were often his bastards, were very seemed to be brighter. And the common people seemed to be very dull. It was a sad fact, but they seemed to be dull. And what was really going on was the king and this goes right on up to the 19th century, was that the king and his nobles owned all of the animals. They did all of the hunting, and the animals lived on all the different kinds of herbs and so forth. They had a very good chemical background, so that the nobles were living on the meat, and they were the fighting people. They said "we need all that meat" and you other people don't do the fighting so you have to live on the roots. And the roots are a very different kind of roots in different places, and often have a very limited kind of chemistry just potatoes or whatever it might be. We find then, only in the last, it is just as clear as it can be, the court assumed, and everybody assumed, the poor people and the nobles alike, that there really were two classes of people the nobles and the king were something absolutely different blood, therefore the king and the nobles must intermarry to keep that strain going. That they are the strong people and that these other people are very dull. Now this was a working assumption, where also Karl Marx assumed that, "Yes it is a worker, but he is pretty dull," and there's not enough to go around, so therefore he's going to have great austerity anyway, and he's got to do things in a very simple way that really goes along with pretty dull people. But he assumed there was class that there were two classes of people. He said that the working class was some other strain of blood, and you'd have to kill off this other breed who were the parasites, but that these were two different blood groups. This really brought about the phenomena we use called "class."

I assure you, when I was young by this time things were getting better for humanity, and I can't tell you how I resented the concepts of class. It just seemed to be absolutely awful, but the "class" phenomena was very powerful, I assure you. "The carriage trade,"it was just and everybody assumed it was so! But the thing that bothered me always, was that my friends who were poor, tended to be pretty dull. It really bothered me terribly, because I had been told that there were really two classes of people.

Now we come to, for the last 15 years, and only fifteen years, we have had incontrovertible, scientific proof that undernourishment in the womb in the first year of life, and you are liable to have a damaged brain. There is nothing more powerful. And when I say undernourishment, it doesn't mean that you do not have enough potatoes, it means the wrong, not the right spread of the chemistries. So that under-nourishment,when the people do not I find then that the nobles got that meat which had this enormous variety of foods that all of the animals were eating, beautifully so that they were not getting this damage and the poor people were. I am absolutely convinced today now that also good nourishment came along and the standard of living has gone up during my life. I have been just amazed at all the people who used to that I knew who it kind of seemed and so forth that they were kind of dull who are no longer dull. They are just as bright as can be. In other words, I am absolutely convinced that there is neither race nor class. Absolutely none! This is very deep and very powerful, my feeling about that.

This is not an old enough kind of fact to be in the political great arguments, but I think it has a whole lot to do as I go on with you further, about what I think we have in the way of options of humanity of human beings, what human beings, what you as little individuals, each one of us a little individual, can do, what when we get into those options, he's going to have a lot to do to really be sure to have it out in the open. We're really dealing with a world people, a re-cross breeding world people, that got tremendously isolated, differentiated out for various reasons, and they are all coming back together again, just like the map suddenly bring things together.

Now, so, there I was Navy, and I was deeply convinced of the information, and I was deeply convinced of the information now about Thomas Malthus and I understand, then, why I was trained in the Navy that was now at parity with the masters of the world. Therefore I was being trained to be one of those masters. And I said, you know I'm on and you know in our Navy in World War I, we had refrigeration. And that was the first thing that actually hit me I don't know why, but we had on board ship what I knew I couldn't get it on the shore really, we could have cream and it was refrigerated six months it was the finest cream there was, and the army is having canned milk. Now, the, as we developed this sailing ship as we go into the steam ship, the first thing you had to have in a steam ship you had to have water for your boilers. So the first thing that happened, again, with this steamship was that they had to develop desalinization. You could not have steam ships without desalinization. So that's something that has been thoroughly done and very effectively for a very, very long time. I hear very little getting done for society about desalinization because they say, "it costs too much," and when you find any arguments about whether we should be actually making our own fresh water, versus the they always go back to what it costs, they say, for the water to come down from the mountains here and through our aqueducts and so forth, and it costs a few cents more per thousand gallons. It's literally a cent more or two. We're saying we're not crediting what it costs Nature to get that water uphill there, and to start coming down and so forth. How long it took Nature to build the total water shed that we have there. We call that "for nothing," but when we are in fact calculating about making something, they do then charge the interest and the debt on the money and so forth capital kind of costs, so I really do find this is quite a lot of nonsense. But at any rate, I always say, when suddenly New York doesn't have any water, then what's it going to cost you?

So this kind of penny pinching this is so absolutely absurd, it goes on time and again. But also, I can understand how it happens. As you go along with me I want you always to keep in mind all this evolution of man, and here this evolution of his information, and the grand strategies that he has employed, and the momentums that they really can build up, and the conditioned reflexes.

Now, what really was important, then we have this steamship. We found that we can ride the ship so hard through the sea that the design had to really go into the steel steamship then she could really withstand the much more impact with the seas and last better. Then you have your boiler way down below the waterline, got to have an enormous amount of oxygen that gets in there, so the first air conditioning develops at sea to get that water down there. And you couldn't have there's no daylight down there, there's no portholes down 20 or 30 feet below the water level, so that you had to have, we had enormous power, so we had auxiliaries then, this is where all the first great electrical generators went. This is the market that produced electrical generators. So that we got all those ships then had electrical power, electrical lights long before the people on land were having it, years before we began to have it. And we had the they had the desalinization for 20-25 years, we had refrigeration for 20 years before anybody had it up on the land.

Here I was then in the Navy with all these firsts. We had the air conditioning, and the desalinization, and refrigeration and so forth. And I said, Thomas Malthus didn't know we were going to have refrigeration. He was in a wooden ship then, and he assumed the foods would rot over here and could never reach the mouths over there. So I said, what else did he leave out? He didn't know we were going to take the tin from the straight sediments and flow it very thinly onto thin steel sheets and make tin cans very, very cheaply, and the food could be preserved. He assumed that foods could not reach the people, and I now know that they can. So I said, "What else did Malthus leave out?" Then there was suddenly that radio which I was being involved with, and the, I said I was telling somebody while you were out there I was in the navy project during my transport service when the war W.W.I was over, President Woodrow Wilson decided he must go to France and meet at Versailles with all these people to decide what to do as we pull out of the war. President Wilson was the first President, really, who had been enormously hooked up electronically, so he needed to have very good communications. So on board of the steamship George Washington, we installed some new radio apparatus, and then I was talking because this is a Bell System that a Bell scientist during World War I had developed the concept of getting voice on the radio, which was so poor that we had it in our battleship, but you could actually wig-wag where you could see further than you could talk. But anyway, here was this Bell man who had invented a way of going from spark to arc set with telephoning. So we put this completely new apparatus on board the George Washington and on President Wilson's second trip back to France, we spoke from Brest Harbor to Arlington, the first transoceanic voice. And I was involved in that operation, so I felt very strongly the radio and voice would say. It used to be that to get a message across the Atlantic, you had to send a ship. You had to have a man. That was the only way you could get it there. And so, now with just a couple of hundred pounds of apparatus and you could get it there at 186,000 miles a second!

The more I began to look at things here, it looked to me and suddenly we had this little airplane this airplane is going to sink a battle cruiser. Quite clearly we are doing more with less in a very, very big way and it could be that we might do so much with so little that we might be able, really, to take care of everybody. Because the whole Malthusian thing was the basis of all economists, the economists don't look into the technology. There is not a phrase, a sentence, a word in any book of economics about doing more with less. It's always, you do it with the well-known. So I began to realize there was something really potentially coming up, and because I was on a big enough pattern of understanding the grand strategy, and understanding that this was what it was all about, I could see, back in 1917 there was a possibility that sometime we might get around to then, doing more with less there seemed to be an acceleration going in that direction.

Part 15

So I began to, I did come out of the Navy and went into the building world, and in that building world I got 240 buildings between l922 and l927. In l927, when I decided to make my real peel off, when I committed myself in principle to precession, or the idea that you'd get on alright if you committed yourself to doing what Nature is trying to do, trying to make man a success instead of trying to earn a living. It was a very big break-off that I made there, but I did so with enormous conviction, that if I really attended to how you do more with less what I saw that nobody understood at all, was that you might have very much less for housing, that everything was in great big stone, enormous things. The steel building was just coming in when I was a young man just coming in. And they were just insinuating steel inside of the stone buildings made the stone building a little bigger. But still there's a stone building out there pretty much. So I saw that there was incredible ignorance operative in the building world, and it was still more the fortress idea than more with less.

And I said, here is this lovely little airplane, and this little aluminum wall this thick, and it's 45 degrees below 0 degrees out there, and I'm very comfortable inside here, and I'm going through the air many times the speed of a hurricane; and these houses won't take hurricanes even. So I said, I think it is very, very possible to really use advanced technology only going into the war and the weaponry for the housing, then it could be, that this is see there is something called priority, and in all the great emergencies you have the high priorities. Priorities are who's going to get the high performance materials or high performance capabilities the high performance tools there's not enough of them, so what tasks do you put them on? So they had the first things first have to be done, so when you have priorities like every action has a reaction, if you have priorities you have to have anti-priorities. What doesn't get the priorities. And what doesn't get the priorities has always been the home front. Anything to keep the rain off, while you make the munitions to send the boys to the front will do. And that was the psychology. So I saw that nobody ever looked at the buildings, and they keep staying in that fortress kind of phenomena.

So this then, is why I'm really going to look. Where we've said there is nowhere nearly enough to go around, therefore you never spend any capital in the direction of trying to make people a success, for we now know it is impossible that would just be absolutely down the drain, therefore we only really do it in the direction of the war and hope this by-products, salaries, and little profit will work out fairly well for humanity cause that's the best you can do. So, I then said, this is what brought me then around to the individual homes, to the geodesic, the Dymaxion House, and later on geodesic domes and so forth. That brought me in then to the structuring, and you can understand then how I feel about getting into tensegrity how much you can do with how little. Because I really now know that it is highly feasible, I can enclose an environment, because tensegrity you remember tension has no limit length. This is very different from compressional structures, very limited in length. So all of our buildings are on a compression basis. And all of the engineering is that way, and they will not accredit tension. Yet, I found what makes my geodesic domes stand up IS the tension, so I can make any span you want we can go right around the earth if we wanted to we can have a complete sphere that goes right around the earth a tensegrity sphere. If there is enough material on earth, we can make another environment control for the whole earth as far as that goes. But the point, in pure principle, is that I saw I could get into very large, beautiful, environment controls, and I can really tell you now, that I now know the technology, I know exactly the ways of environment controlling to take care of snow loads, hurricane loads, incidentally, these structures, it's incredible as far as earthquakes go they are just like bell buoys, nothing happens to them at all they're a ship, they are finite, they come back to themselves. And the buildings we build which open up, they're squares and everything, just rack apart. Nothing happens to it (the tensegrity) in a earthquake it maybe just tips over like that just like any bell buoy, any boat. So that the, I know, that it is possible to give you 300 buildings for one for given hurricane, earthquake loading, or any of the things that buildings have to do I can give you 300 buildings for one against the best known engineering strategy, with the tensegrity, spherical structures. Spheroidal, they can be caterpillars and so forth they don't have to be a pure symmetry, but the point is, I know I can give you 300 to 1. And when I do get into that, I now know that it is, not only compounding what I gave you about the energy studies we did here, I now know it is highly feasible to take care of all humanity! The area has never really been looked into, and nobody has looked into it because they've said there is no use in really looking into it the building LIVINGRY. So it's not a matter then of the customs of yesterday at all, it's really a matter of if man is really going to survive we're going to have to use the technology we see really coming up. And if we do get somewhere now, if we get to any kind of disarmament, then what's been high priority to build the whole air-space technology is going to be released for the home front.

Now, again, man not understand what is going on, and often being very much against himself we come, then, to the space program. And, what has really gone on there could not be more valuable for humanity, because as you know, here are you and I born on this planet, and there is a biosphere, and here is all this oxygen to breathe it's great! One of the realizations our great army commanders and so forth, who all said, you quartermasters can usually find some water, and you can find some food over there so all they concentrate things on the weaponry and how to teach people to fire their gun. And this man can be taught within a week or so how to fire that gun, but as far as you really don't have to do anything about the man because he can sleep on the ground, and you're going to get him some water, there's some water around there, and food. You've got him in a uniform so that he is easier to control in this way, and get him into obeying orders. But you didn't have to do anything about him physically.

It was not until W.W.I when we did send a million people across the ocean, and there had never been a transport operation like that in history and the expense was very high they discovered that it was cheaper to repair a man in Europe then to send a replacement. This is what brought money behind medicine for the first time in history. That's why there had been an extraordinary change in the whole of the survival of man. So suddenly humanity got into the idea of having hospitalization and really getting medicine for everybody. It's getting to be a little man's game.

Now, I need a little help I've made a digression on that medicine. (From the audience "the space program"). Space program that's it. Then, so on the sea, there still was air to be breathed, and there was desalinization so the water was being taken care of. The man could just sleep in a hammock. You didn't really have to do very much about the man. But when you came then to the space program, for the first time, you are going to where there is no air to be breathed, there is nothing that a human being really needs. So in order to take the man out of our biosphere, you had to find out for the first time, what it is then that a human being really needs? What do you need for a human being to keep him going? Nobody ever had really gotten down to that.

As I said, armies went on their belly, and you could kill the take the next man's farm you didn't know. When you ask human beings "How much do you really need? How much land to produce? How much food to keep you alive? Do you know if each human being needs an acre? Does he need 10 acres? What do you need?" I find absolute ignorance about this. Of course there are varying conditions, but in magnitude, nobody really knows. The space program is the first time we really had to find out. And the idea, then, of keeping people in space for protracted periods of time, as against just a little sandwich and thermos bottle trip to really keep them there, then you really have to learn all about human beings. And you find that they are a process. Now both Russia and the United States have had some extraordinary programs going on research and, in them for quite a few years now, we have had groups of human beings living inside a controlled environment, there are windows so people can look in at them, scientists and so forth. There are telephones so you can talk out alright, but they have literally been put into a controlled environment with a certain amount of equipment, a certain amount of supply, to see how this equipment really works where they began to find water crests got into a very important part of a recycling way of getting pure waters, and so forth some very extraordinary discoveries were made, but at any rate, we're at a point now where we have had, I think it's, I think it is six men inside this controlled chamber for a year, where we really do have them going, where the amount of apparatus necessary to take in there equipment, in addition to the original supply you take on because they recirculated their waters, they found it is perfectly possible to get recirculating their water, and they get the first purification is perfectly good for washing, and cleaning; and the second purification is absolutely pure for drinking. They have been able, then, to get down to where, for six men, the apparatus that does everything goes into the equivalent of one very large airplane suitcase and the total weight is 250 pounds, so divide by 6 and it's a little over 45 pounds, I guess, here. Now a man carries a back-pack of 70 pounds in an army pack this is a relatively light load. Forty five pounds of apparatus per person, and that apparatus is going to sum totally when Russia and the United States get through paying their kind of bills for that, will run into whatever it is, maybe $10 billion, or something they spent on it. But, when it is all done, it still is aluminum and iron and so forth, and per pound, automobiles gotten worse and worse, but I remember when they were 25 cents a pound, and now they're going up to 50 cents a pound and so forth, but with the airplane running in somewhere from the $2.00 to $10.00 per pound. So saying 45 pounds for you and at $10.00 a pound, which is much too high, but still we're talking about $450.00. And here you have the equipment that takes care of all your needs; it may not be familiar to you, you're not used to it but the point is you are actually recirculating so the inputs you have then to add in there annually are very small. Probably won't be $450 when you get through, but what we've done developing the equipment plus the environment controlling and I know I've really got my own environment control now, and I was brought into that advanced structures research of that NASA, and I am very confident about our structure side. That we, we have now where, if it's worth $450.00 I ought to be able to rent it then for say, I ought to be able to rent it for say $30.00 a year. So, you can still get it paid off pretty quickly. In other words, it's going to get down to $2 or $3 a month is all you need for all the equipment to keep your life going.

Now, all I'm saying is, when we found out how to keep man alive in space, out of the biosphere, for the first time we found out how to take care of him anywhere in Universe. This is the first really important research on what the human beings need that we have ever known. Because I said, we never really went into that, because they're all excess, and there most people are afraid and they've never looked into that. We've looked into repairing them medically, but we've never looked into what you really need to make them a success. Only in that space program have we ever done that.

So I hear lots of knowledgeable people say, "never mind the space program, let's house everybody", and I say "Do you know what you need for a house?" "What's a house?" If you try to get into the kind of houses we're giving everybody here in America and so forth, you won't take care of 30% of humanity. The material is not there. So let's stop the nonsense about saying "this is wasting money." Luckily, it really has been the most informative program we have ever had. So, you say, "Well, the kids won't like that people aren't used to living that way." Nobody is saying that when people when the astronauts do get to doing it, everybody is watching them, and all the kids are watching them. And with the satellite relay and so forth, by the time we really have people living in space for two and three years, everybody will be looking at them all the time and nobody will ever have been so well known and the way that things work for them is going to be everybody's concern. And by the time we get that program really working so you have life being well taken care of anywhere in Universe outside of the biosphere, then the kids will see that is critical to the way you get on here. That's the way a kid is. You're not going to get him to go and complicate himself, going to Bellevue-Stratford anymore. So I wanted to have a little feeling for you of man in his fear that he was always able politically to get enormous appropriations when the enemy is coming, and this is what the enemy is going to have, and he's going to destroy us, so we've got to make the big effort. This is the only time when we really had a great mandate, and so man in his fear, looking out for the people not really looking out for himself but looking out for the people who depended on him, this is always the game; we then have, inadvertently done some, some very good things for the wrong reason.

But fortunately, this is all part of this evolution, we got to a new level a completely new level, and the space rung is to me the rung by far the most important one that I know we have come to.

We've gone well over our time. I'm sorry.

Let's see if there are anymore final connections. I used the NAGA because I wanted you going into the grand strategies and the intercourse of really feeling those great caravannings and voyagings and why the masters who really do make money why they were doing the kinds of tricks they were doing, because here from now on as I go on with you, we're going to have to get into our own grand strategy what are the things that really need to be done by man? And as I signed off tonight, just along with the idea of the space program and so forth, you must realize with the United States, Russia, China and NATO's $200 billion a year for war; somewhere around $30 billion goes into psychological warfare, where they say, "Instead of waiting for the war to come, it's much better to break down the other man's economy so he can't even make war. And that is exactly what really did happen in the 60's, it got to the point where, to young America again never really felt it's FOR world, then. It will not look out for just itself.

And there was then, the breaking down of the confidence in the idea that all the great corporations, and all those great war contracts, and all those things that used to look everybody thought it was great and you suddenly find that the only place the flag was was on the factory. And the thing began to look very wrong. We really are at a point where a great psychological warfare did go on, and I'm sorry to say it goes in for narcotics and does anything and everything to break down the other man's economy. But one of the games played an enormous psychological, is the one where suddenly you find there is enormous propaganda say against the supersonic American plane, but there was none against the Russian. The Russians were very, very successful, but all the, this was not carried on because again that is part of that "Who's going to do most with the least" game. So that there are many things, like "Space program is bad" and so forth, "technology is bad" that are also you can understand how society falls for it. That's easy to see. But the point is that very much of the pushing of a lot of things that I have said, has come out of the psychological warfare.

I'm anything I'm not for either side. I am absolutely apolitical. And I'm absolutely sure that if we stay political, we're licked, so I'm not giving any political position saying what I'm saying here at all. So I do want to recognize that many of the things that we find that are being said, that society talks so very glibly about, like "technology is something very new by man," I feel is very much of a propaganda invention.

That, we'll stop on that for tonight. Thank you.