I talked quite a lot last time about technology and the at present very popular viewpoint that technology is something that has been introduced to our life on our planet here by human beings. That man is inherently mischievous, and that he has really made quite a lot of trouble for himself. I do not subscribe to this at all. Everything that you will experience with me as we explore, consists of the discovering one principle after another that man has gradually, after enough experiences, been able to discover as operative in Universe, whether it is mass interattractiveness, or the principle of leverage, or whatever it might be. That these principles, then, what the word "ology," "technology," the "ology" is the knowledge acquired by humans, of the regarding then the techniques by which Universe has accomplished various extraordinary behaviors. So that the biology, we are learning how the bio, the zoological and the botanical do develop. What are the structural laws that are operative and so forth. So that all of the technology, the technique of the structuring, and the associating and disassociating, and the way in which energy is transformed, continually transforming. What are the methods of the transformations. And, I'd just like to get down to a very simple statement, that I really I hope you'll feel strongly about it, and find yourself in a position to counter when people talk about man as introducing technology, and this is something bad, that the Universe as far as I'm concerned, the Universe is technology. And what man has been given is the capability of his mind over and above the brain to discover the technology, and to the power of design that he was given that capability. And therefore I assume that it was part of the design that he was supposed to use that capability.
And, that we are really discovering then, is that what has happened, is that man in his fear, and in his drive of hunger and his looking out for his own family, his own side, has then developed technology early, very much as weapons, though he did a great deal of technology in learning how to pound the meals into grain and so forth, and how he could convert various discoveries of nature into eatability. But I find that as I go thru the anthropological museums, I'm sorry to say that really the biggest acceleration in technology seems to be in the way of the weapons. And the weapons possibly first they are tools or instruments of killing of animals; but they are spearing animals, though, and then they are spearing human beings. And, the biggest acceleration in our technology has been through the ages, then, in the development of weapons for warfare on the basis of the "you" or "me-ness" of the assumed inadequacy of life support on board of our planet due to man's being born ignorant and really not knowing enough about what is really going on.
But, what has transpired and with great acceleration during my lifetime, has been the discovery of uses of principles first for war, and then when the wars are over finding that an enormous production technology has been developed. As for instance, you have the water wheel going around the waterfall was there all the time, and now you have the water running the water wheel and is operating an electric generator. And the energy is continually going then, available over wire to do work at great distances. After the war is over, something very different came in with World War I, in relation to wars then had ever, apparently entered in earlier. Though we have Biblically the phrase "turning swords into plowshares." And that will be the simplest kind of phrase of converting the war developed technology to the support of life that comes in afterwards.
World War I, is then an enormous metallurgical war where human beings up to the time of World War I, being primarily supported by agriculture and fishing; and we find the metals coming in making possible then to tin a steel can so we could have food preserved and not be contaminated. Suddenly this metals world entered into the picture, and due to the alloys and the metallic resources being situated around our planet very differently from where the agrarian matters occurred where things could grow. Very often the mines were just where things couldn't grow on a great mountain side rocky mountain side. And so we find that World War I, is a world war because of the world's metallic resources being brought into play over and above the agricultural resources, which were, every time the wars came, up to World War I, you took the farm boys off the farms to do the fighting. You used up the farm foods, you trampled down the farms with your warring. And when the wars were over everybody was at very great disadvantage.
So, it came as an enormous surprise after World War I, and I always say that was world war and it's world war because it's no longer just a local, agricultural one. It's world war because you are using resources that come from around the complete earth, which are metallic resources, and the technical information that came out of all history and all countries. And so, suddenly then a warring over life support for total earth, and no longer just between two adjacent countries. And, with World War I, we have this occurs in a sequence of events of human beings learning about the technology of Universe and beginning to employ it. It is the first really great application of energies other than human muscle to the doing of work, because by this time we did have the electric generator, and it could be tied up to Niagara Falls and to other running waters.
And at the time of World War I, humanity took out of the ground, and put to work extraordinary numbers of metals, and in particular, copper and iron. Copper, as you know is a very preferred conductor. It's non-sparking and conducts electrical current almost the most efficient. Silver is just a little bit better, and gold a little better than silver as a conductor, but there is not enough silver or gold to be used functionally as conductors or as parts of electric motors. And copper, while it is not a plentiful material, is plentiful enough to be functionally used, so that copper became then the hand-maiden of the generation of electricity with the copper windings around the iron magnets. And we have then, copper became the conductor then to carry this power to great distances, and then be used again in the windings of the motors where you used the power that had been brought by the conducting wires.
In the one year, 1917, when the United States came into World War I, W.W.I as you remember began, as you remember, 1914, but three years later, the United States came into that war, and it was really drawn in by both the ally sides in Europe the Germans and the English, tried very hard to get America in on their side because of the enormous potential productivity that was there. And during that one year, 1917, humanity, and particularly in America, mined more copper and refined it and put it to work, in one year than man had produced copper in the whole history of man before, cumulatively all the copper that had ever been produced up to that time of World War I. That amount was way outdone by the copper produced in one year, 1917. Due then to copper being the essence of suddenly using energies other than the muscles of man to do extraordinary work.
When the war was over, and unlike the farm wars where I said the foods had been used up, things had been exhausted fields had been exhausted, men had been exhausted; suddenly with World War I over, the copper did not disintegrate, it did not go back into the mines. It stayed right where it was, and the water fall kept on going and so, we suddenly found that power was still being generated, and it was still being conducted to many places to produce work.
So, this was really the beginning of the technology, and the technology of employing energy onto levers other than the energy of human muscles or the muscles of horses, and animals. And it was an extraordinary productivity that suddenly was there. As a consequence, many changes began to occur. As, for instance, we had, as we ended World War I, the number of human beings that were at any economic success whatsoever, with any real hope of being able to carry on without doing some personal work themselves, was way less than 1% of humanity. And I developed some data to give me some insight in the changes that occurred post World War I in relation to humanity in general.
When we measure energy, the ability to do work with energy, the prime criteria of science through all the ages has been the ability to lift a given weight against gravity and a given height in a given amount of time; so you call it one foot pound per minute, or it could be one centimeter gram second. There are many different ways of expressing it. And, as we get into the electrical world, we get down to jewels and then we get down to kilowatts per hour, so that they are all inter-translatable in the terms of the centimeter gram seconds, lifting weight against gravity. So there have been a number, since science then started measuring energy in such a manner, there have been a number of experimental investigations done of work that can be done by human beings in a given amount of time. And it has been found the investigations have been done primarily by armies of great countries, the German army, the Swiss army, the English army, the American army have measured the amount of work a healthy young 20-year older can do with a given pack of a given weight and his own bodily weight. How much can he really climb in a day's work before he is exhausted going up a mountain grade, and you were able then to figure the foot pounds per minute. That was accomplished at an angle, like that, able then to discover what the average amount of work that can be done by a human being in a given day, out of the amount of energy he is consuming get a metabolic rating, metabolics being the conversions of energies into work. And we have internal metabolics that you and I, let's think about our digestion of foods and so forth, and we have external metabolics we do with machinery, by introducing energy to do work through levers. And the amount of work, then, we found that the human beings could do, an average, healthy young man, was then able to be stated in terms of man powers per day, or man powers per year. Cumulatively how many days he carries this on.
So that I was able to come to the calculation of man powers per year by taking and integrating the results of the experiments made by various armies around the world. There seemed to be a great consensus on the part of scientist about what this amount of work was. So, I had a man power per year figure. I wanted to use that in trying to assess the amount of work that could be done after W.W.I in contradistinction to the amount of work that could be done before W.W.I, by human beings using their minds and discovering principles, versus just using their muscles.
We find the, now that there is relative efficiency used in, engineering using the word efficiency. And efficiency, then identifies the amount of work you're getting out of a machine as ratio to the amount of energy you put into the machine. And again you use the same methods of rating of what the work potential is in the number of b.t.u.'s oh heat, you can rate these things in different ways, but the efficiency then, of a reciprocating engine for instance, is about only 15%, average of reciprocating engine around 15%.
You have a piston and you have an explosion on top of the piston, and you send the piston this direction. It has a connecting rod, and the connecting rod goes to the crankshaft. The crankshaft immediately contra you send it this way by putting, introducing energy, and the crankshaft contradicts you and sends it back. So you've lost all your momentum in this direction. This is one reason why it isn't very efficient. There is a little bit of momentum, because the crankshaft itself has a circular motion, so there is a little momentum, angular momentum it is called, the bottom of the crankshaft going around, so it sends it...
Now, we have another kind of an engine, we call it a turbine, where we have then a connecting rod, and it impels surface, and instead of having an explosion on top here, we have an explosion on the side. And the explosion being on the side, it sends it around like this, but it is restrained by a shaft. It's not a crankshaft it's just a plain shaft, and the impelled goes around at what you call a 90 degree restraint going on, so it does not contradict itself, it comes back again to be pushed a little more, and so your turbine is inherently about 30% efficient about twice as efficient as the reciprocating engine. Then we have something like the jet engines, with no connecting rods at all, and you have your explosion, and you have the thrust, and you're working against inertia and displacement in this matter. We find, then, the thrust effectiveness of a jet engine without any connecting rods at all gets up to 60 or 65% efficient. Then we have ways of converting energy today that have been brought into place by the space programs. We get into the energy cells it is a chemical and electrical energy transformation where you bring oxygen and hydrogen together and it releases energy. And we get up to about 85% efficiency with this cell. And so there are, very high efficiencies that can be realized by humans by using the right technology.
I found that taking the overall energy uses in the United States, I did these figures for Fortune Magazine in 1938 to 1940, and I was Science and Technology Consultant on the staff at the time; and I found, taking the amount of energies being used in America, the ones where the energy is going thru, being used by the reciprocating engine versus the turbines and so forth and then getting down to the efficiency as rated not just to the particular engine itself, but the way we use the engine.
For instance, the reciprocating engine in an automobile, you have the drive shaft. Then it has to go, the energy has to be changed at 90 degrees to go out thru the differential to the wheels. Every time you go round a 90 degree turn and so forth, you lose a great deal of energy. The energy of that automobile engine, then, is greatly reduced from the 15% as it gets transferred mechanically to the wheels, having to go through quite a lot of gears, and the transmission box, so that takes up some more energy. As you drive your car there is enormous tire distortion. That has to be paid for out of that energy, and so forth. And you get to where, automobiles as used, get down to a very low order of efficiency. And at all times in America now, North America, this includes Canada and Mexico, there are over 2 million cars standing in front of red lights with their engines going. Then we have over 2 million times approximately 100 horsepower being generated as they are idling there, so that we have something like 200 million horses jumping up and down and going nowhere. Now, we have to count that in our economy when we begin to get down to what is the efficiency of the economy.
As I got into a very comprehensive inventory of all the energies being used in America, I found that you could not accredit the whole economy with more than 5%, we are only realizing 5% out of all the energies we are consuming. This figure still holds. That is, today, out of every 100 barrels of petroleum we import we put 95 down the flush. Just out of pure, many times, as I say, really poor and quite avoidable design decisions. Decisions where to use the reciprocating engine on the part of automobile companies simply because that's the way they make money. They did not want to change their dies, their toolings. They've had the gas turbine for a number of years with very high perfection, some of them get used in trucks and so forth, but they do not get used in automobiles because they lose a lot of money that they could make, just because the people don't know this. So there is a great exploitation of the ignorance of humanity.
There is also the limit of the distance which you could transmit energy by electric wire. There is no way in which you can get energy from here to there to do work in any ways or quantities and such speeds as by electrical conduction. So that pipelines and oil lines and trucks and tank cars and so forth are all relatively slow. So I find our economy really dependent on the electrical energy networks how far you can transmit and 350 miles is all we could transmit up to the time of World War II, in a practical manner. You could send it further, but it involved so many materials and metals into it that you wouldn't have enough metals left over for other industries. So, the operating choice has been the 350 mile range which is brought about by certain to get more range you have to go higher and higher in your voltage. And the higher your voltage the more insulating problems you're going to have and so forth.
So that the I took the energy networks, that is we found that the energy networks were not close enough to each other at more than 350 miles between major ones, so there were eastern seaboard energy networks at the time I was doing these figures for FORTUNE MAGAZINE. took the amount of energies being consumed in that energy network economy, from all sources from the water power, from the fossil fuels, the coals, the oil the food being consumed by the people. And taking that total amount of energy being consumed, I then had to divide it by 20 to get it down to the 5% overall efficiency. That's all you're realizing, so taking the total consumed, because I knew you could only get 5% out, so we subtract then the 95%, and what is left I then divided that amount of energy, converted it into manpower per year, because we had that figure. So I could then see what was the equivalent of man powers effectiveness actually operating in our economy.
It is a very sad fact that in the United States, this sad fact is very real, that if you go back in the record, with the Revolution of 1776, and so forth, the first census of the population of the United States was taken in 1790 just after the war was over. And in 1810 the United States Congress decided we ought to have a census of the wealth of America, and so the Treasury Department had a very large survey made with the people to determine that wealth. In 1810 there were a million families in America. In 1810 there were a million human slaves in America. I said this was a very sad, and very dramatic fact to be revealed as you go back in those records. It looked like an average, every family having a human slave, but that was not correct. Very few families owned the slaves, comparatively. But the point is, there was that kind of a figure. So I found that in 1940, in contradistinction to that kind of condition, that there were a number then of energy slaves working in the economy rather than human slaves. And, I found that you can go back and look at that FORTUNE MAGAZINE 10th anniversary issue in 1940, and you'll find the numbers of energy slaves operating per each person, or per family, the number of energy slaves per person in the United States was 39 energy slaves per person, as every individual, if we have families of 5, we then get up into pretty close to 200 slaves working for each family but energy slaves, really inanimate in contradistinction to a million one slave per family of the human slaves. We suddenly have 200 non-human slaves doing the work. You get an enormous step up in the advances of living that it represented as well as doing away with the inhumane idea of the human being being the muscle machine to be commanded. That change had taken place in so short a time, really, I'm talking about a 130 year change, I felt that I was discovering something very, very dramatic.
And now, I took then, the criteria I went into the figures in 1940 even more deeply, because by then World War II was thoroughly looming, and a great deal of the energy being generated in the United States was going towards war production. So I deducted from the total energy that I would be considering any energy that could be identified as going towards anything to do with war, to see how much energy then was actually benefiting the family the human beings. The energies producing a highway for them to go on, I made that primarily for then and not for the war, whatever it might be. I made it as strict an accounting as I could to see what was really benefiting the family. So then I found how many net energy slaves were really supporting a peaceful life of human beings in America, and when I found 100 energy slaves per family, approximately, I gave you 200 at the time, about 100, one-half of them, then were really working for the human family itself, and the other half of them were working towards getting ready for war. So taking, I took the criteria of 100 energy slaves per family, as being the criteria of what I call a "have" family. And this representative of people really enjoying a very comfortable standard of living. So my criteria of a "have" family, 100 energy slaves per family.
Now, in 1900, taking the total of human population, far less than one percent were what I call "industrial have" families I use the words "industrial haves." Incidentally, I use the word "industry" in connection with the technology, and I've also found myself being mistaken or misunderstood with the word "industry" a great deal over the years, because I'm going to give you a good definition of "industry" in a few minutes to follow thru on this. But I find the word "industry" being identified also with the exploitives people trying to make money, rather than having the world work. So that a I use the word "industry" and I'll show you later on, in a very distinct way to, really it is an anthropological way, it is a biological way, to explain it. But I use then the words "industrial have family" one hundred inanimate energy slaves working for it specifically for its comfort and life support and increase in degrees of freedom it's inquiry and movement and so forth.
So less than 1% of humanity in 1900. As a consequence of World War II and the technology I spoke about that was introduced with world War II, as we came out, 4% of all humanity was suddenly "industrial haves," which was a very big jump from nothing.
In 1951, I was taking a new point on the curve, and I found that we had gotten up to 28% of humanity. I have now enough points on my curve, I have three points to be able to discover what a radius, there is a radius of change so I made it a constant radius of change, and I extended that radius, and I found that the curve is increasing.
So rapidly that the curve, in exactly 2000 A.D. we came to 100% of humanity would be enjoying this higher standard of living. I saw that that curve could be accelerated, and so I made an acceleration curve on my 1951 publishing of this curve, and I took the slower rate, the constant rate of radius, and I found that as of this was 1951 in 1970 the curve went through 50% of humanity, and historically the 99% and more of humanity were "have nots" they were in dire need, and revolution was really rampant. And the many then would say, the few are enjoying unfairly, and we must get them to do something about it.
When you go by 50%, I saw for the first time in history, the majority began to be "haves" rather than "have nots." This would bring about a really very different way of looking at things. Those who were "haves" would probably find, the much more information they have than they ever had before, find that they really could not enjoy their "haveness" along with the awareness of the dire "have not-ness" of the others. I felt, at any rate, that this would be a critical point, where for the first time we do not have the majority rising up to pull down the top. You might really have then the tendency of the majority being on top to pull the bottom up. This seemed to me probably to be a very new volition. So in 1951 I marked on my chart that the critical year would be 1970 using my acceleration it could be somewhere between 1970 and 1975. The most accelerated point was 1970 and the least accelerated was 1975. So, I marked then that this is a critical period. And it really came in, the curve did get to exactly there at 1970, so we crossed, we've been going thru a very, very critical time here now. Because this is a point where, I say, it is now being clearly demonstrated to humanity that something is going on if he is not so myopic and so short sighted as not to really look at such curves. I was really astonished how little people really looked at them. It was this kind of awareness that made me want to develop what I called a World Game to try to make it as quickly as possible clear to all humanity what its' options were that changes are going on. There are very big things going on in nature here. I said I also was going to identify the word "industry" with you, which I would like to do now.
I spoke to you two days ago about human beings being not just half way between the biggest and the littlest known biological species but that we were in the middle. That all the other species were distinguished by having integral distinguishing equipment for special environments. And that human beings were in the middle and had the capability to sense principles and employ the principles so that he could go into any kind of environment. He can go under the sea or into the sky, or whatever it might be. He can get out of our atmosphere. That he had, then, this particular kind of distinction. I'm going now to look at other biological species again. And I'm going to identify behaviors of various organisms where we find in the fundamentals of the Great Second Law of Thermal Dynamics, energies being given off by systems. The energies being given off by the systems automatically being given off get into the environment, and alter the environment. So we find all systems are really at all times altering other systems. This is the very essence of evolution. We find that organic creatures take on more energy, and employ more energy than non-organics, and they give off more energies than the non-organic than the inanimate metals and so forth. So that the living organisms alter the environment a little more than the non-biologicals. The altered environment then calls for new adaptability biochemists wanting to ask anyone about the Universe he talks about this as the epigenetic landscape of the environment is changing the environment. And we find, then, that there are a number of biological creatures that alter the environment in discrete ways, rather than in a random way. Energies just given off can bring about very random conditions as you can understand, and due to the fact that the environment itself is changing, the energy given off is not in any synchronization with it it tends to be disorderly interaction between the environments the energy being given off and the environment.
There are, however, creatures that alter the environment in very discrete ways, so that human beings can immediately apprehend that one of these other organisms is in operation there for instance, a spider's web. That is, they alter the environment in ways that are actually disconnectable from their own integral equipment. And yet they alter the environment external extracorporeal. That alteration is necessary to their survival. So that we find that a number of the creatures really have two parts to their survival an integral equipment and an external equipment. So the field mouse runs through the grass in that lovely little tube. Or the moles run is part of his survival equipment. So he is a miner and the mine is part of the mole. We find then that there are increasing delicacies and intricacies of the alterations of the environment by the individual creature.
As for instance, we have the bird, and the bird's unique function is its ability to get on in the air. And in order to be able to fly, it has to do the most with the least. So, the bird is designed to take on relatively small amounts of fuel, and at fairly high frequencies, so that it would never get over-loaded with fuel no big fuel tanks. So its weight can be kept down. And the bird cannot have the young bird gestated in its womb, because it gets so overweight it could not possibly reach those small energy inputs it needs to reach an insect it couldn't fly anymore it would be too heavy, and it would starve, and the new life would starve also. So the bird is designed in such a manner, that the development of the new life is effected by a beautiful design in which then the chemical nutriments are secreted to surround an embryo in an egg, and the chemical ingredients on board to crush that egg and get it out quickly. Then the bird, the birds can produce nests and they produce them in many ways. A very typical one of the migrating birds is the male birds will migrate northerly earlier than the female birds, and the male birds flying can identify the kind of terrain and growth where the kinds of insects or worms that that particular bird lives on would be in plenitude. And picking the most favorable places for that, they then come into that area, and the male birds take positions in the trees they have omni-directional positioning, not on highways and just working linearly, but omni-directionally. So they take positions in trees, and you find, you see two male birds of a given species from time to time coming down on the lawn, and a little fight going on. What they are doing is taking position in the trees, and then making trial sorties of the distances that the mother bird will be able to go from the nest as she leaves the egg, without letting the egg get too cool. There is a very limited range then of her sorties. So the male birds find out what is in going after the food they are going to need what is the range from that nest, and they find two males find that their ranging is running into each other, then they spread out in the trees a little more, because they haven't built any nests or anything, they are simply taking position in the trees so they get their geometrical interpositioning really like closest packed spheres, so each of the spheres having the radius of the range which the mother can go. So we find them then developing the nest, and the nest is, then, really an extension of the womb function. And the nest is an insulator, and the egg is in it, and the mother sits on top of it to close the sphere around it to make an artificial womb, and then the mother must give the egg heat, and heat at a very specific rate. If you give the heat to the egg too fast, you're just going to boil the egg and have a hard boiled egg. You have to give the egg heat at exactly the right rate, and the mother is designed the whole thing is designed for the bi-product heat coming from that mother to keep that egg just right in that nest. So she's able then, the nest will hold the heat enough so that the mother can make that sortie, and get back there before it gets out of that critical heat balance again. It's an extraordinary piece of design. We get to where the ecological design is exquisite.
And you'll find each of the birds, the species, designing different kinds of nests, there's not something called a bird's nest. And you can tell an oriole's nest right away from a fish hawk's nest, or whatever it may be. And then, they'll use beautiful pieces of weaving and the things that go on in producing it. And so I find, however, that the oriole doesn't change its design. Once in a while in the new world where we have nylon stockings, you may get a nylon thread instead of a piece of cotton thread of yesterday, and so the nest may be a little stronger, but the bird didn't do that purposely, it's not really part of the volition. We don't find any of these species altering their extracorporeal to do. It stays absolutely highly distinguishable and readily you and I can identify it very promptly.
I find then, the, many biological species that have extracorporeal these are artifacts, these are tools the nest is a tool an artifact. And it is an environment alternation that produces a favorable environment external to the bird. I find, then, human beings are not at all unique in developing tools, or having the capability to alter environment to bring about preferred conditions for their particular species. But, man is very unique in his ability to discern principles and to alter the design of the artifacts. That's why we find him different from any of the other species again.
Now, I find then, I have something and these artifacts extracorporeal, where it is part of the species itself; where I'll simply say, nest is part of bird. And the fact that is not attached is irrelevant. Now I then see that human beings and their tools are, even though they change their design, the tools are really part of the human being. So here you have a really very interesting kind of species where he is really evoluting quite rapidly in his external tool producing. But he can only produce what nature permits him to produce. It has to be completely approved technology of Universe before he can ever employ the principles.
Now, I find that the most distinguishing of then, technology, from the technology universe, is its relative crudity. It is only operating at 5% when it could be operating at 85% or whatever it might be. So that I see that that is also part of his learning, that he is born naked and helpless and had to find his way. So I can see he may come to some critical mass condition where he suddenly has enough information to behave a little differently from what he does in his fear. And those are the kinds of things I keep looking for in these kind of curves of great change. And incidentally it was absolutely implicit in that curve that I gave you of increasing "haveness" that we were coming to a point where all humanity would suddenly be complete "have" and whatever the great struggles, all the "raison d'etre" for all wars, for all politics would go, if we could survive through that period while learning, whether he'd blow himself to pieces or not, for many a species dies, or many an individual dies. He had been born to be a success, but some how or other he has not employed the totality in a way that makes it successful. So that, I said, that if he could make it, he would suddenly be in an entirely new relationship to Universe, where the consideration would NEVER be you or me, it would just be very spontaneous WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE AND HOW DO WE DO IT? Spontaneously. And what do we need to know more about principles to do it effectively? Where the kind of nonsense of the money-making I gave you the other day, with the honey-money built in drive would then become just as obsolete as the umbilical cord when the child is out of the womb. It doesn't mean it wasn't good, it's time. SO IN NO WAY AM I CONDEMNING WHAT MAN HAS DONE AT ALL, I just am attempting to see what it is he is passing thru and trying to see if I can find any gate by which he might get here but there is no instant anything. We don't have instant universe, we simply have gestation rates, and all are meant to do with really very proper development and proper fitness, and the kind of transition we're talking about is something that had to take millions of years it already has taken we know man has been on board this planet for 3 million years, but we just suddenly are coming to some kind of an epitome of the information gaining, that we're supposed to behave really very, very maturely and with utter integrity. And not in the terms of the negatives of fear and so forth.
Now, coming back to the tools, and human beings, then, being tool makers along with other creatures. And having capability of their mind to apprehend principles and to alter the tools very much in pure principle, and able to get into all kinds of environments they hadn't been able to before, and to get on effectively. We have, then, those human beings with their extracorporeal tools, so I find that all the tools of humans, I'm going to get to the class of humans and their tools, all tools break down into two kinds of tools what I call the craft tools and the industrial tools.
The craft tools are all the tools inventions, devices, that can be discovered and improvised by one individual starting nakedly in the wilderness. The little boy going along nakedly in the wilderness, kicks a stone incidentally, and realizes a stone can be kicked in a preferred way. So then he finds he can pick it up and throw it in a preferred way. Then he finds he can hit something. His arm is longer than he thought it was, because that stone will hit it. And then he finds he can pick up a stick and it becomes an extension of his arm, and he can knock something down off of the tree. These are things he can do absolutely starting nakedly in the wilderness by himself, the kind of information, and what he does spontaneously in satisfaction of his hunger or whatever it may be, his curiosity. So I find then all the great heaps of artifacts around the world are primarily, then, craft tools whether it is a fishing pole or developing of bows and arrows, swing, or whatever it may be making a crock. This is all done by the individual experimentally. He can arrange those conditions. So the enormous heaps of artifacts of history are all craft tools. Now, I define the craft tools, I have an absolute sharp differentiation between craft tools and industrial.
Industrial tools are all the tools that cannot be made by one human being. It just would not occur. For instance, a great giant dynamo this piece of machinery here. It involves incredible thousands of people just doing the mining of those metals and so forth, it is a very complex production. So these are industrial tools. These are the tools that represent the cooperative efforts of very large numbers of human beings, both in the information gathering that went into it as well as the actual production efforts or whatever it might be.
It is very sharp industrial all the tools that cannot be produced by one man. I want you to think then, I said all those heaps of artifacts are the ones that could be produced by one man, and this industrial one is in a sense a very new one. And when I have my definition of the industrial tool versus the craft tool, I come to a very interesting discovery, which is that the first industrial tool of man was the spoken word. It required communication between human beings. So instead of saying "In the beginning was the word," I said in the beginning of industrialization was the word." By virtue of this human beings could integrate their experiences. I'm sure this communication that was pre-sound words of men, there was no question about it. But he had to be able to communicate. Communication, then, is from one to another, where you compound your experience. This brings about this industrial tool.
O.K., now, I gave you then the industrial tool, and with the absolute clean cleavage between the two types, and it begins to give me great insights. Now you can understand why I find it very misinformative, belittling, to speak about industrialization only in terms of a corporation making money, where a relative few may own shares they gamble and put up some capital, and buy some equipment made by incredible numbers of human beings, and they find ways of turning the productivity of the many to the advantage of the few. And that this goes on must not in any way let us lose insight in the fundamentals. So the industrialization is absolutely fundamental to Universe and the technology absolutely fundamental. And it is, how do we use the information and all the integration of the information we are getting by virtue of those words that makes it possible, then, to and with the written word you could communication from generation to generation. SUDDENLY ABLE TO COMPOUND. So, I find industrialization is then the, in contradistinction to the craft the craft is inherently local, inherently limited. It is limited to that little individual the length of the time of his life. And different parts of our planet are very, very different, so he might be born for instance in the South Seas versus being born in Finland the conditions are very, very different. And this little individual only has little legs and he can only cover a certain sweepout of area in a total lifetime, and he doesn't have time to see how much room he can cover because so much of the time he is picking up food. And he notices some back that he stays pretty local. Human beings, then, the craft tools are inherently local and very limited. Limited to a lifetime. Industrial is inherently comprehensive, embracing all the information gained by all human beings that has ever been communicated, one to another, in all of the history of man. So the leverage advantage, what we can do industrially, versus what we can do in craft, is just incredible! Again, I shutter when I hear people talking about industrialization "we must go back right to craft.." You can't do it you'd have to give up words apparently, because the words are the most beautiful technology.
This is obviously, you are drifting into oblivion very rapidly. So I see this extraordinary designed accumulation of the most incredible information, an extraordinary capability has been developed for you and I to sit here in this room. It's night time, but there are lights all kinds of lights. And that we are making a recording of what you and I are thinking together here so that it can be communicated this can be sent around the world at 186,000 miles a second! Whatever way we are willing to be truthful and thoughtful, with the reality of our moment, realizing our reality world which we know very little about. We're just trying to be as absolutely truthful as we can. These are the things we have to go on. So I must be very sure that you understand my word, how I use that word. And that we are trying how we avoid the fear and ignorance of looking out for me, of looking out for my side that brought about the money making and the exploitation that brought about this negative viewpoint of society regarding its technology and the enormous coordinated contributions of all humans all before us to this moment, which we exist.
Our responsibility is very great. We have an incredible responsibility. Now, I say, the ignorant man can do things that are seemingly very offensive. The people who do what to me is rated by society as very offensive, I say they have to be very, very innocent to do it, otherwise they would be too embarrassed themselves. In other words, there has to be a lot of sensitivity has been shut off in one way or another. They have been starved of sensitivity, or whatever it may be that such things could go wrong.
Now, I'm going to veer away from what I've been giving you, which is really, it's very generalizable, what I'm talking about could really go on, on other planets, under other biological other biosphere conditions where there needed to be a local sensing organism. There could be somekind of local sensing organism that might be able to get on very well in extraordinary heat, that our organism couldn't get on at where we have been designed primarily, in this hydraulic designing. So maybe it would be some other kind of liquid, maybe mercury for blood, or something like that. There are ways in which designs can be accommodated for any part of the Universe where local sensing organisms could be operating, and might be then, have been given the same access to generalized principles, the capability to apprehend relationships between, that are not of. In other words, I think the monitoring that can go on would look very, very different in any other part of the Universe.
I'm now going to seem to change subjects fairly abruptly, but not really so. Because I would like to think about the human organism. The human as a design and see if we can find any other discrepancies where society is prone to make this explanation. It's an easy way to want to talk, and say, where the explanation is a little different. I mentioned earlier, human beings, then, having a proclivity to want to explain things monologically so they would like to find THE building block. And one reason why they probably, the Platonists and so forth, did not really realize that you could combine the tetrahedron and the octahedron to fill all space, and that the space filling was inherently complementary.
So I said, we only have complementarity come into physics in 1922. We don't have the knowledge of the complementaries are not mirror images of one another until the Nobel Prize was given in l956 a very, very recent event.
So, you and I know this, and so we can think quite differently when we look for these complementaries of one another. Now, human beings, long, long ago, evolved words for concepts, and there are certain concepts that I find are very, very important to reconsider very thoroughly. I have something I call a PATTERN INTEGRITY and I find that pattern integrity is something operative independent of the local phenomena that inform you and I of the presence of that pattern integrity. And here is the way we are going to find ourselves on an experimental basis, what I mean by pattern integrity.
I am going to take a manila rope of a given diameter and given number of strands, and taking a piece of nylon rope of the same diameter, same number of strands. I'm going to splice the nylon into the end of the manila rope, and then to the nylon rope I'm going to splice in a cotton rope of the same diameter and number of strands.
I'm now going to take a hold of the beginning end of the manila rope, not the spliced end, and I'm going to lead it, making a circle like this, make one circle one complete cycle. And then I'm going to make another cycle, still holding on to my rope, and I hold on to the circle I've already made, hold that in this hand, and I run my rope through, I make another circle in another plane. If I were to make a circle in one plane and then another plane, and then a circle in the same plane, it becomes what you call a "coil." But when I make one circle in one plane and then in another plane, with leading the end through it I have then what we call an interference, and that is the simplest known knot. I now have two ends of the rope with this interference of one circle with the other; and if I pull on it the knot tends to contract it gets to be a very interesting condition to Universe where we find there are the mass interattractivenesses of those spherical islands of the planets and so forth, so when the two are pulling one another, if one of these interferences occurs, then it makes things get tighter. So this is the thinking that goes into Einstein's thinking about energy as mass,
where the energy then gets tying back interfering with itself, and tying itself up in knots, in contradistinction to energy being released radiantly. How can it knot itself up? By interferences. As you look to tensegrity structures with me, they must be closed, they must come back to themselves. These are interferences it is interference patterns producing interstructural stabilities, interference patterns.
Now, I'm not going to that spliced set of ropes manila, nylon, cotton. I'm going to make the knot rather just loosely, I'm not going to pull on the two ends I've got it on the end of the manila rope, and now I'm using my hand and closing it around the rope I'm going to shove the knot along, keep massaging it along, so I must massage it until it gets to the end of the manila, and now it gets on to the nylon. I keep massaging it along and it goes off the end of the nylon, onto the cotton. I keep on massaging it and finally it goes off of the end of the cotton disappears. I can, now, the rope didn't do anything itself. My hand lead the rope and my hand did what my brain and my mind asked it to do. I had a pattern that I was familiar with and I wanted to explore that pattern. So I am responsible for the pattern. My mind is actually visualizing what I did in that patterning, not what my hand did, and not what the rope did. Now what I've learned here is, I've done what moved this knot along was that the knot could not be identified as being manila.
Though it was a manila knot that told you it was a knot. So I massage it along and suddenly the nylon is telling you that it is a knot. Now the cotton is telling it. Well that knot is what I call a pattern integrity. It's presence being communicated to you and I by virtue of its interfering with and doing certain things with things that you and I can apprehend. And we have the tuning capability to see rope. There are a lot of things we can't see. There are many things going on in this room here, the electromagnetic waves going thru the room we can't see. But this is one of the things we can see. We have the tuning capability to see that yellow of the manila, or the bluish white of the nylon.
Next thing. I can drop a stone in the water and a beautiful circular wave emanates. Or I can try it in milk and the same wave, or I can try it in kerosene, and the same. I've been thinking this wave, I called it a wave a water wave so I said, "maybe it isn't the water, maybe it isn't the milk, maybe it isn't the kerosene, we've got to find out more about it."
So now we scatter sawdust very nicely, evenly on the water. It's a still pond here, and we just scatter it nicely and evenly. And then we drop a piece of red popcorn in the middle of the floating sawdust there, and then we take surveyor's transits, and on three different angles at that red popcorn we have moving picture cameras which are both above and at various sides. So we have a number of observers, in fact we have all of the degrees of freedom because we have enough cameras again for the six positive and six negative. So now we drop a stone in the water over here and the wave goes into the sawdust, and you see the yellow sawdust wave, and the red piece of popcorn defined by these instrumentations, moves outwardly from the center of the earth, inwardly, and comes back where it was. It didn't go anywhere. Though it would have been part of one of the waves as it went along, you would have thought.
Now we find the molecules of water in exactly the same way, and now I'm going to very clearly identify, they operate, not exactly in a perfect perpendicular, but in a very narrow, delicate ellipse and come right back where they were. They don't go anywhere. So what went from here to there, you can see the wave go from here to there, but the water didn't go anywhere, so the wave had to just go by itself just as the knot went along on the rope, the rope wasn't going anywhere. So I begin then to discover that the wave is a pattern integrity in its own right, and I want to know more about it, so it is a nice beautiful day and we go down to the harbor, and there is no wind blowing, and a lovely blue sky, and the clouds you look there to the water and there are lovely boats moored out there, and the reflection of that boat, there's its hull, and there's its mast, and there's the blue sky and the clouds, all mirrored in the harbor. And so suddenly we throw something in the water, and the mast and the boat does this way and that way. What happened is then that the radiation from the sun coming through the atmosphere of the earth gets bent into the red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet so that the blue sky which is a reflective of that radiation being bent, and there are the white clouds and all of the green trees, the yellow of the ship these are all colors within the very small amount of the great electromagnetic spectrum that is visible, tunable, by man. So those are frequencies which you and I have the tuning capability for, so what happens is that tuning capability with which we have the equipment, plus "after image" which is a very extraordinary thing, this brain relationship of storing these special cases at a rate at which we can recall, "after image" tells us that the mast did this. We got us a little scenario. So the information which you and I can tune in the red and the yellow and blue of the sky that size wave that you and I can tune, gives us information compositely of the presence of a wave you and I can't tune. Now this is a step-up and step-down transformer of information. So I want to get at the point then, that the fact that you and I say we can see a wave in the water we don't at all. We see the blue sky, we see that those kind of waves. We see blue waves, and yellow waves, and white waves we're not seeing the waves of the water, but we are getting information about it due to "after-image," very specific memory thing, get a very fast report of that memory thing, we caught on to that that wave was present. This is all that happens when we then started, electromagnetics got into a radio set. We began to pick up waves a mile high. That's the first, the first radios were all mile waves. Pattern integrity, o.k.?
Now I'm going to come back to starting to think a little bit about you and I. I find human beings playing a game over the great ages called animate-inanimate. They had twenty guests and twenty questions. And, you play that in all kind of radio games and television games today, but the first question that an astute person would ask the person who knew the answer would be, "Is it animate, or inanimate?" Because that got rid of a great deal of irrelevancies. I talked to you yesterday about thinking, getting rid of irrelevancies. So it gets rid of a great many irrelevancies. We, then, assume animate and inanimate were physical objects. That the physical was either animate or inanimate. Quite clearly warm, soft flesh is absolutely different from cold, hard metal. And so they never should be confused, the animate and inanimate. And gradually man began to learn a little more, getting more and more specialized and before I finish today I'm going to get back and talk a little bit more about specialization. At any rate, we find man learning a little more about his total experiences and beginning to realize that there are biological species other than just biology, or other than just the name bird, or just my friend in the sky begin then to have these different species identified, and began then to gradually get into such information as where you have to have the word "biology" you want to differentiate between the plants and the other creatures zoological. Now, with biology, as I came into the world of biology at the turn of the century, man had no idea of any relationship of biology with chemistry. There was little known about what the chemistry of Biology might be. It was not thought really in the chemical terms. And chemistry was dealing with invisibles, and doing things experimentally and discovering things invisible. It was only at the time of World War II, that recent, by which time I am 50 years of age, that man found he had more and more powerful instruments better and better microscopes, and there were more and more specialists coming in and they didn't want to be exactly on top of one another, so they kept taking a little more surrounding territory. There are so many specialists in biology and so many specialists in chemistry that suddenly with World War II, came the knowledge that they overlapped. And thinking they were going to be more and more specialized it came really as kind of a shock to then find this man as a biochemist. The hyphenated terms of science come in only with World War II. That recent.
Now, gradually then, we began to have information of genetics genes; and the biological species being controlled some kind of way in the Darwinian time they had cells. And you could recognize those cells as something, and you could learn more about those cells by looking with the microscope very extraordinary things go on here dichotomies of various kinds, and suddenly then, genes and something very specially controlling special designs of special creatures. And men begin to make more and human beings begin to investigate more and more the control of the species. So what they needed was to get living organisms that had very rapid generations, to be able to see from generation to generation what the changes might be, and if they could find what any of the variables controlling it might be. They found that the fruit flies, then, had very swift regeneration. But even more so, and a lot was found thru the fruit flies. But then we found that even more rapid were the tobacco mosaic viruses very rapid, therefore you gradually began to discover what was being responsible for various conditions in these growths. Then came the realization that you were dealing with viruses, and with this realization came a whole new area of virology. And virology got into the protein shells of the viruses, and within it discovering the DNA-RNA controls of the actually the code of the guanine, thymine, cytosine, adenine which came together to produce these extraordinary, unique designs of all the biological species. Anyhow, they were helical they were helix. And studying the Watson-Crick-Wilkins Helix you find that they took they made a complete helical cycle, came around once every ten increments it came in increments of 36 degrees each, and ten times that is 360 degrees.
This became extremely interesting. One thing I'll just point out to you is that the protein shells of all the viruses turned out to be all geodesic structured, and all on the icosahedron because the icosahedron gives you the most volume with the least energy quanta to give you the greatest strength. So the virus shells are incredibly strong because they are all geodesics. And within the DNA-RNA we find this helical. Now, if you take tetrahedra and put fasten tetrahedra face to face with another tetrahedron at this point you could have another tetrahedron added onto this face here or this face here, you have two choices. If you do, and you keep adding on at the same rate, you'll find that it makes a screw form it makes a helix and this is the tetrahelix. And, if you count your tetrahedra go up, every ten you get a cycle in fact only tetrahedra bring about helixes. So the very identity of the DNA-RNA helix comes immediately right back to our friend tetrahedron. Now we're getting down to some very, very intimate things as the basic building structure of universe, etc. etc.
The enough of that part. I just want to show you an integration of information that's going on here, and as we just in a few days we've had three days here where we've been making many different kinds of remote starts, one from another, and beginning to find an integration of information and getting down to very simple fundamentals.
I want to come back to the concept of animate and inanimate. As we get to the area of virology, instead of there being virologists, there are physicists, chemists, biologists, geneticists, they are all in there. It is a great potpourri of sciences. But everybody is so terribly excited with what they are finding, that nobody has been, and there is a general propensity on the part of the scientists to become more and more specialized, not to philosophize about the significance of what they are finding and how it fits in other schemes. So we don't have the natural philosopher, as he was called, of the turn of the century like the Percival Bridgeman or Whitehead and so forth. Bridgeman was about the last of the natural philosophers who was trying to see what was the philosophic consequence what it is you have to think about, about what you're finding over here in relationship to the information. So you find then that these virologists absolutely so intent and highly specialized none of them have thought to say to society, the game of inanimate and animate is invalid.
We find there is no such threshold existing between animate and inanimate. We simply have to say that we can call the phenomena going on in here you can call it biological if you want to, or you can call it absolutely completely inanimate crystallography. And they say, one thing we know now is what is inanimate is getting clearer and clearer, and what is animate becomes less and less clear. In fact, we have to say, if we are being strict physicists as a virologist, there isn't an animate because the atom is inanimate, and everything physical is atoms. It's either atom or it comes apart as radiation either radiation or atoms. So what is inanimate, what was animate, you see, gets less and less clear. The physics suddenly ran right thru the chemistry and all throughout biology. So I think, again, we're going to have to think that oversimplification of animate and inanimate as being all physical.
Experiments have been made many times by young medical scientists in hospitals a pauper, a man dying of cancer, knows he is dying is perfectly willing because he likes the people in the hospital, he knows them is perfectly willing to have his bed on a scale at the time he is dying. And whenever death is no weight is lost. At first the scientists saw a little tiny bit of weight but it turned out to be the weight of the air in the lungs, the air in the lungs weighs quite a little. We take on 54 pounds of air a day, out of which we subtract 7 pounds of oxygen to keep ourselves going; and so that that residual air, and there is actually no identifiable arrow moving needle moving identification of anything being lost when the phenomena of life goes.
Now, you've often heard, recently, great specialists getting particularly into the chemistry in the virology and so forth, getting to the point where they say they have been able to identify in star dust the unique chemistries essential to produce the organism of life. They call it they have now, the key to life. When this man dies all the chemistry is right there. You know that. I now have to come to the absolute conclusion that the mistake is all the time in identifying the animate as being physical. What goes on in this room between you and I, and that word "between" is very important. Remember SYNERGY. What goes on between you and I which is understanding is really not implicit in your organism in your nose or your hair or anything. I simply say there is a synergetic phenomena that does go on between that is not of. It is not the physical, and everything that is going on between me and you is absolutely metaphysical. I use the word "metaphysical" the physicists, then, identify the "physical" then as energy, energy associative as matter and energy disassociative as radiation, and one convertible into the other. Metaphysical is everything that doesn't move a needle. And there is nothing that moves any needles here regarding this information I am giving you. The quality of the information the significance of the information. That is absolutely metaphysical.
And I simply then now get to dealing in the metaphysical identified absolutely with life because I say the first single word that I can find to give me an experiential definition of something I call "life" is awareness, and it is an awareness of that otherness, and it is a communication. So, I also came to the other day, giving you "tetrahedron" triangles, conceptual, conceptuality, independent of size. You don't have size, you have to have time. The clock had to go around, but you have conceptuality independent of size and time. This is Pattern Integrity Conceptuality Independent, and this metaphysical goes on, our understanding. We found that our thoughts came then to dividing all total experiences into all experiences relevant outwardly and inwardly, and getting down to a set which was relevant. So, in our understanding we find finally, what are the interconnections between the stars that we do realize are relevant lucidly relevant what are the interconnections. Coming back again to these polyhedronal structures.
Now, in pursuing this concept of Pattern Integrity, concept of knotting of energies the way they have interferences to bring about local apprehendability and I'm introducing one other side input, and then I'll come right back to where I am. Reality, up to this century reality to humanity was everything you could see, smell, touch and hear. And the newspapers are still operating on that basis of reality is only what you see, smell, touch and hear. So, I said the electron wasn't discovered until I was 3 years of age. The first wireless message of S.O.S. when I am twelve, very, very recent. During those years we were finding ultraviolet and so forth. Suddenly on 1930 there is the first publishing of taking an inventory of all the different forms of radiation and electromagnetic waves and frequencies. So they found, by this time they found each of the chemical elements had its unique electromagnetic frequencies they were giving off they were colors you and I couldn't see, but the chemical emulsion could see. You have interference. So we have, then, all of the 92 regenerative chemical elements and in 1932 we have the last isolation of the chemical elements, and we have suddenly publishing the chart of electromagnetic frequencies. And each of those metals having, apparently, it could be they all have four separate unique frequencies not in serial order at all different distances apart. But each one of them had a four-color hat band and a hat band, some very wide and some very thin, but no hat band ever in anyway is to be mistaken there is no redundancy with any other chemical element. So iron there would be a frequency here on the great electromagnetic spectrum out here, and there's another iron here, and another, and you can find the four iron points in it. So we find in the great electromagnetic spectrum then a great overlapping of the different chemical elements. There is an enormous overlapping of these things like our scenario universe with the overlappings. And where little human beings could see, going thru great long waves and low frequencies, higher and higher frequencies, shorter and shorter waves where human beings could see and hear just above infrared is the red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet. And then you go on to ultraviolet, and then you go on to the higher frequencies that we can't tune in.
Where human beings have the equipment to tune in, and you may be familiar with getting into, if you have an automobile, or a ship, or an airplane, getting into your talking radio equipment then you have unique bands that you can tune in on. Imagine human beings have this tiny little band where you and I can tune in, and we find that that is less than a millionth of reality. Just think of it. This is reality these are the realities, and you and I can see less than a millionth of reality. For which reason, then, there, in going thru any room we might be in, if you had, could introduce a couple million radio sets wide-band radio sets each one could be tuned in on a different there are over two million programs in this room right now, if you have the right machine turned on. There is right here in this room, coming from the satellites, the sensor satellites going around this earth, is, in this room a program which will tell you where every beef cattle on our earth is right now. How many there are. That's the new reality. And where all the wheat fields are in bloom. All that inventory can be taken, just like that. That is the new reality, and we're not operating like that at all. We're still operating at newspaper reality of the things you see, smell, touch and hear.
I want to really have that in here, so we can get back to thinking about the Pattern Integrity which I was developing and the phenomena of life, and so forth. I've introduced to you knots and I am now going to point out to you that, in my lifetime, at very close to 80, I've quite a long time and when I was seventy I had already processed over 1000 tons of food, air and water, which I brought temporarily together to form my hair and my skin, and it got rubbed off and so forth. I've actually processed that many tons. I weighed into the scene of humanity at 7 pounds. I got to be 70 pounds, I got to be 170, I got up to 207. Then I took off 70 pounds and I said, "who's that, cause here I am?" Obviously that was not me. So what of that physical ever was me? I said, none of it was ever me. I'm not just what I happened to have for breakfast the last seven years. I began to think about this quite differently, and I'm going to make a getting down to identifying human beings in a non-Darwinian way.
Darwin, as you all know, explaining to the satisfaction of brains brains wanting beginnings and endings. Darwin explaining to humanity how it happened that we had human beings, and the biologists having found with their microscopes and so forth all these various living organisms, getting down to the simplest one getting down to the ameba a single cell. And so he and the other biologists began to think, well we put these cells together, and as I said, at that time they really didn't know anything about the genetics, you knew really nothing about the chemistries of these things at the time of Darwin formulating his thoughts, Dalton was the great physicists, and at that time Dalton was certain we had, only about half of the chemical elements had been isolated, that we knew anything about. And Dalton was assuming that all of the chemical elements were built out of the hydrogen atom.
So, that monological desire of man to explain everything in the one thing THE building block of life, or whatever it is. So Darwin, then, has a single cell creature and he built all the other living creatures out of it. Now in these years since 1930 with the electromagnetic spectrum identification of all those chemical elements, and l932 the last of the 92 were isolated it was a very new moment of the history of man. And these are all phenomena of interest really within this particular century. Man didn't know they were there before. We have, what I spoke to you about the other day, little human beings' ability to detect principles and employ those principles getting refraction of light, which made it possible to identify those frequencies of different chemical elements, but also to make lenses and so forth. And we have human beings then employing this equipment. They have been able, and I spoke about, we now have a telescopic and photographic sweepout of about ll.5 billion light years radius of observation where we've got these billion galaxies. We have all that light coming from all around us for ll.5 billion years, all of it is being put thru the spectroscope photograph after photograph, been able to identify human beings on our planet have been able to take inventory, the relative abundance of all the chemical elements present in the thus-far observed Universe. And such phenomena begins to average out in a sense, so that you begin to have you find that that is very interesting because you begin to get into isotopal, what you call the magic numbers of the isotopes and so forth, all part of this kind of a pattern.
Now, if you want to identify various biological species by the chemical elements that are present, that's a very different way than just saying they all grow out of a single cell, because I said, at the time of the single cell (Darwin's time) they knew nothing about the chemistries of the cell at all of any importance. So I point out to you then, if I tried to find a number of chemical elements in the ameba, they are very few, just as I find that the sun has very few chemical elements. Most of the stars have relatively few. So this little ameba has very few. So if I want to find some counterpart of the relative abundance of the chemical elements in human beings, I find that the relative abundance of chemical elements in human beings, strangely enough seems to be congruent with the relative abundance of chemical elements in universe it's only counterpart. Man in this kind of terms, seems to be Miniature Universe.
Now, now I'll come to another very important point for you in which we say, we find Universe is inherently complex UNITY IS PLURAL AND AT A MINIMUM TWO. And the great complementarity is difference not mirror images. So we have an inherently complex Universe. You don't start making explanations of one, you don't have to start. Universe doesn't start and stop it is eternal. So we have an eternal integrity being manifest here, and no stop and starting about it. And we find it is inherently complex. There are a plurality of generalized principles that are not the same, that don't interfere, they are all interaccommodative. A BEAUTIFUL EXTRAORDINARY FUNDAMENTAL A PRIORI ETERNAL COMPLEXITY. Where the very word INTEGRITY comes out because that's what is integrated. All together. I find then the, it absolutely unnecessary to explain then that human beings are built out of building blocks. Therefore, also recognizing that what you and I are, are called nothing but pattern integrities very complex pattern integrities. Similar to the complex pattern integrity of universe with all of its transforming continually going on.
I am now going to imagine with you you've been through quite a lot imaginatively with me in fact, I don't think we have anything quite so important as our "Image-ination" where we take all of this input information and begin to identify it with complex systems and be able to re-identify that species or whatever fantastic sorting of "Image-ination."
No man has ever seen outside of himself. It is always all this information from outside getting put together inside here, in the television studio. Our "Image-ination" Studio. So, incidentally, this relates to the reality of our experience we are all going thru here with the videoscope. I want to point out to you that the I have lots of models around me. As I explored through the years, I used to make model after model to really find out how my principles were operating. There was a time when I went to Black Mountain College. I was there for two years visited there for two years. I was on their staff. I used to have a big trailer, and I had it absolutely loaded with models. Gradually I began to get better and better cameras, and I'd make beautiful photographs of my models. Then I had slides, and I'd go around and always have my slide cases and I'd always have lectures with slides. Gradually I begun to find I needn't have quite as many slides. Then, suddenly, I was meeting somebody very important, and they say, "I'm fascinated with your slides show, and all that you said, will you tell my friend over here, the President of Harvard University or whatever it is what about that thing?" But I don't have my slides with me.
I found that it was perfectly possible for me to describe to the President of Harvard University, in the terms of, "Oh, I must go back to his personal senses," I must find certain experiences he has had, I must be able to generalize them and get him to understand what it is I'm talking about. And in the end he's going to see it in here anyway. Even if I had a slide show it's going to be operating in here (points to his head), so I said, if I can build an "Image-ination" with my words, if I can get him to do the building of the models he will remember it much longer than if he has seen it on a slide. I am really quite confident that in running the show as we are running it, though it seems very attractive, the idea of each time my jumping up and finding the right model, I find that you are probably going to remember it very much better than if you'd seen the actual model here. I'm seemingly digressing again, and I'm going to come back to this "life" phenomena, and what I want you to imagine.
I had a great friend whose name was Alex King, and Alex King, when I was a Science and Technology Consultant on the FORTUNE staff, he was the Art Editor of LIFE MAGAZINE. And Alex King also was a good playwright, and he was quite an expert on the theater and drama. And many of the people who were writing plays would come to Alex King for counsel on how to handle their play. He saw many, many plays go to backers on Broadway, and go through all the rehearsals, and enormous amounts of money put out, and so forth, and suddenly unfavorable criticism, and dead. It was a very excruciating experience that Broadway phenomena.
So, Alex King wrote a beautiful play, and he decided he was going to get around all of this. So what he did was, he said "I'm not going to try to find a backer or anything..." He took his own money and he hired the Depression was still pretty much on it was one of the good theaters in New York. He hired the theater for a night. And, on that evening, he also then sent out invitations to all the critics in New York, and many very distinguished people in New York, to come to his opening. They came in full dress and everything and it was a very gala occasion. Alex found that the he appeared on the stage and he said, he found that in hiring the theater he had also to hire the stage hands, so having hired and having had to pay the stage hands, he then had the stage hands kept two grand pianos, so he had one on this end of the stage, and one on this side, and from time to time he would have the stage hands come in and switch the pianos from one end to the other (giggles from the audience in studio where Bucky is speaking). So and all he used them for was to sit on he'd get up and sit on the piano and talk.
And Alex, then, described on the stage the first scene of his play, and who the characters were, and he pointed these places, and the play opened, he has his character, and he was reading his play, and this character was saying this, and that, and when that play was over it was really a fascinating play. It was just before World War II. It went on in Vienna and there were two young people who didn't want to get sucked into the war, and so they get themselves in they played crazy and got put into an insane asylum. But they played crazy one was Romeo and the other was Juliet, so they get to play Romeo and Juliet all through the war, and very well done. And they planned it in Viennese cafe.
At any rate, I saw people years and years after he got a rave report the play never went on and that was the end of it. But I've seen people, that's 1940 30 years ago people who saw it, and they can "see" every scene, "I can "see" that character and know exactly the way, this and that. I can see it much more vividly than if he had had actual scenery there."
So I'm really taking advantage of experience. I'm quite confident that I'm not really passing up a very important opportunity here in doing our video, to be always coming in with the right illustration. Because I think that I now have forced myself to be very disciplined with myself and to be very careful to always go back to your experience, that you find you've had one of those kinds of experiences so that together we can find the principles operating there and then we bring it into a special case use again of the principles.
Now, I'm coming back then again to Darwin and single cells and explanations of life, and discovering then that human beings have a number of chemical elements present that are not present in roses and oysters and so forth, and I said then that inasmuch as the Universe is inherently complex, eternally and a priori, I see no reason at all why we shouldn't have a complex human right away. In other words, I also find that you and I are not the chemistry which we use to make you and I visible in this particular biosphere, as a particular sensing organism that whatever is going on between you and I, is absolutely not that materialism single cell.
I'm now going to go through, as I said, all of this is opening for me to talk about your "Image-Ination." We are going to imagine going thru a moving picture run backwards. You've seen that, where the people un-dive out of the water onto the they get back onto the springboard.
I'm going to have you at breakfast, and we're running it backwards, and the food comes out of your mouth, back onto the plates and so forth, and the dishes go back into the kitchen, and the things leave the dishes and go onto the stove, and back off of the stove into packages, and the water runs back in the faucet and all that. And gradually all of these foods get back into the supermarket and from there backward into the country, and finally there is asparagus growing over here, and it's white, pineapple comes from over there and so forth. And then they come apart. The plants come apart, and they go back into the rain in the sky, and the other chemistries, so that some suddenly will soon come back as sunlight and we find, then, in no time at all you have come apart and part of you of today a few months ago was over the Himalayan mountains as air.
So, I see then, all of these constituents gradually coming together, until they finally get together in closest association, and all they do is get tied up in a number of knots, a whole lot of slip-knots. SO YOU AND I ARE A PATTERN INTEGRITY SLIDING ALONG ON ALL THESE STRANDS THAT CAME FROM ALL AROUND THE UNIVERSE COMING MOMENTARILY TOGETHER, AND THEN THEY ALL COME APART AGAIN and leave us, and they go out as that 1,000 tons of that process and become part of other organisms and so forth part of the scenery, and joining up with other trees whatever it might be. So I see that I was never anything but a beautiful design pattern integrity, and that I had been employing this equipment for my information sensing under the particular biological conditions of this particular planet. You should never have to think about other human beings on other planets as having exactly the same biological conditions the same biosphere. I would doubt if that, that doesn't even seem mildly necessary, because there is the designing capability to have a sensing organism of any kind, in any one of these areas and much of it will be invisible to our eyes today, because we have just a very limited, limited reporting business.
Now, I am then going to point out to you that, you've probably had this experience, because I've had it several times, where a very good friend of mine says, "I want you to meet my friend Joe, you'd just really love each other you're just the same kind of people," and they say it a number of times when you meet from year to year "I've got to get you and Joe together," and never do it, so I pick up the telephone to call up Joe, and your friend introduces you to Joe, and you talk to each other on the telephone a very nice personality. You really like Joe very much.
Then it happens that Joe and you are in the same kind of activity, and you find yourself at one University and he at another one and so forth, and you have various responsibilities. And you call up Joe because you need some information that Joe might have at his University, and sure enough he has it. At any rate, you find yourself as life goes on calling one another more and more, and finding each other extremely agreeable you like each other very much and they have this kind of information you're both interested in the same thing, so life goes on and on, and many of your friends are dying off, and Joe is the only friend you've got left but you've never seen Joe. You didn't want anybody to get in the way and bother you and your great friend Joe, so you have a special red telephone, and that's Joe. Other people call you on other telephones. So, for all you know, Joe is a red telephone (audience giggles again). And all of us are really beautiful, self resurfacing, self-rebuilding telephones, walking information processing phenomena, and we keep people get mixed up with the telephone calling me Bucky telephone.
So, now I find, so I now get to seeing inasmuch as we are just pattern integrities, and pattern integrities are conceptual they can be very high frequency, but we have all kind of high frequency phenomena.
Therefore I see no reason why I couldn't send you from here to there in the Universe by radio, by simply scanning your frequency. I see no reason why, if we're the game Universe, with all the permitted moves, with all the frequencies that can be employed with all the intertransformabilities, I would say, it would really be quite interesting to follow through on the game Universe, and see how it might come out.
So, I said, each one of us could be the same Universe but playing the game in this particular kind of way with all these degrees of freedom. I mentioned that to you just in passing, the other day. I said the words, but I hadn't identified how I got there.
Furthermore, then, I see absolutely, exactly the opposite from the Darwinian way of trying to build us up out of building blocks, and locally; I see that we're part of the Integrity of Universe that really needs us here for local monitoring, information gathering, problem solving capability.
We've been here for sometime now so we'll stop for 10 minutes.
I used the word "annihilation" two days ago, and I gave you an example of the kind of annihilation that the physicist speaks about when he uses the word. And I gave you the rubber glove that is only one rubber glove on your left hand and you stripped it off, and now the left hand has disappeared and there is only a right hand. I'd like to give you another confirmation of the annihilation. And the kind of confirmation I'd like to give to you relates to Generalized Principles, themselves.
Now, I've talked to you about brain always dealing in special cases, and that the mind finds a generalized relationship that exists between but not of, that is absolutely eternally existent. And, in those generalized principles in contradistinction to the special case experiences, we have then, man, for instance, discovering the principle of the lever, and having discovered the principle of the lever, finds then the distance from the fulcrum to the load use that as a basic increment, and he goes out one increment here and gets even balance. He gets two increments and he gets two to one advantage, and he goes out ten increments and he gets ten to one advantage. So, you might say, I now have the arithmetic, the actual mathematical formula for leverage. And that mathematical formula for leverage, then, makes it possible I say, "I ought to be able to design a generalized lever," and you find that you can't. It's going to have to be wood, or it's going to have to be steel. It has to be such and such a length. You find that even though human mind has the ability to discover generalization out of all these special cases, which we subjectively experience, and mind gets that generalized principle if it wants to employ the generalized principle, it has to go back into the terminality of time and have a special case again.
So both subjectively and objectively, we have to live in the special case though our mind can go into this eternal generalization. And I also, then, pointed out that the generalization of leverage, can then be demonstrated, as Galileo showed, leverage could then be demonstrated, not as a bar at all, or something you call that kind of a lever, but the principle of mathematics of the leverage also would then hold true with pulleys. So you have a set of pulley blocks, and every time you have a rope going through, around, making a circuit here, we have another one of those leverage advantages exactly the same law. And the same laws, then, get into all the gears, all machinery, are all the translation of different sizes and different velocities and everything, this is all just levers a series of levers around a common hub. And so our water wheel is simply a series of those levers around a common hub. And so I find the principle of leverage manifesting itself in all kinds of different shapes, as well as all special sizes that you can't have a generalized anything, physically, and realized in our life.
Now, in the same way then, coming back to annihilation, I want to give you a different type of example from the rubber glove. And a very good one is, I'll just take the octahedron you may remember then that I had an octahedron complementing tetrahedra as I take this tetrahedron and another tetrahedron and put it on the table, I'd like then to fill all space. I can get those three tetrahedra together but we found that the fourth one could not fit in there with the space in between it, with room for another tetrahedron so it got frustrated. But I could balance this tetrahedron on top of the other ones here, and this would give me the big tetrahedron, but the space inside, between them here, is no longer a tetrahedron. This is an octahedron. Let me just put this, then, in the way that you can see it exactly, what it is. There's this face, and this face, and so forth. The bottom face, and so forth. This top of the octahedron, back of it there. So, octahedra complement tetrahedra. And you may remember, then, I now have a tetrahedron twice the size of the little tetrahedron, and when we double the symmetrically, the size of an object, then we get each of the areas is two to the second power, or four. See, one triangle goes to four triangles on the surface. See there? And the volume goes 2 to the third power or 8. So this big tetrahedron is eight times the volume of the little tetrahedron, and you see in the big tetrahedron there are four little tetrahedra on each corner. So I take four from eight and I leave four. So the octahedron which is left inside here has a volume of four because I take away the total thing is eight and I take away one, take away two, take three, four from eight and that leaves me four, the tetrahedron with a volume of four.
I gave you the other day a way of showing that this octahedron then consisted of four asymmetric tetrahedra around a common axis, and each one of those had the same altitude and the same base as the regular tetrahedron so they have the same volume.
Now, having then recalled that a tetrahedron when a tetrahedron's volume is one, then an octahedron is four. I'm going to take this octahedron and I'm going to do something with it that is really quite fascinating to experience. Remember, it has 12 vectors. Remember there are four around, four around, and four around this way. I am going to take any one of those vectors I'll take this one here right in front of me, and I'm going to take it out, disconnect it from these vertexes, and I'm going to put it right back in again, instead of putting it between these two vertexes, I'm going to put it in between these two vertexes. So the same vectors, and it now makes one tetrahedron, two tetrahedron, three tetrahedron in fact, this is the beginning of the tetrahelix, and we have gone, then, from a volume of four to a volume of three absolutely neatly we have annihilated one. Same vectors, same energy, all the energy accounted for, all except you have definitely given up one! And this is exactly the way you go from the generalized octahedron into the special case tetrahelix, which is again the way you get your DNA and your RNA and your special case life. Has the same form.
Just to prove it I can come back again and you regain one again. Here we are at the octahedron again.
Now, I want to go back to something else I talked about the other day SPECIALIZATION. I would like to expand on specialization. As I said to you the other day, I'm introducing sort of major topics, major ways of looking at the Universe and then coming down into special considerations within them. Specialization of humanity on board of our planet, and speaking about then the lack of awareness of the phenomena of behaviors of wholes unpredicted by their parts which is denoted uniquely by the word SYNERGY, and the majority, 97% of the university students were unaware of the word SYNERGY or the phenomena itself. And the same 1% of general public. So I can understand how the general public could really be in a very easy position to be deceived by a general big pattern, where you say everybody's going to be specialists and so forth and not realizing the advantage that could accrue. I can understand how just a little man born in poverty and so forth, wanting his family to have something, going on and looking out for himself. Not realizing then that this is anti-synergetics rather than the best way to carry on. That it is entropic.
I find then that thinking about this specialization one of the things I have observed in my experience, and you must have also experienced to some extent but, I said, already between you and I at your age level what is your average age level? I would guess that you were say 19? 20? somewhere in there. 20. And I'm 80, I'm four times your age, and I have four-times the pattern experience. So the information is coming in so fast that your 20 may equal to, say, 60 of mine, but I have a little more of experience than you and a little longer time to observe some of these pattern changes that are occurring. And, I'm introducing introduction, I'm coming back to my specialization I've just been very recently writing in fact I was writing on it today Ed Applewhite who is with us, worked with me in the production of my book SYNERGETICS, we've been working all these years, and we are getting ready pages for a second edition.
And thinking about syntropy and entropy, and Synergy and Energy behaviors it became really very interesting to realize that obviously, with all the different periodicities with which things occur in our Universe, that when energies are given off by systems, as I said earlier today, and the energy is given off by this system, then altering the environment, that the energies being given off by little local systems seem to be disorderly and random, but it's because the frequency the periods have not repeated themselves enough for you to discover order.
Now, I want you to think about experiences you have heard, you've heard engines of twin-engine boats, or twin-engine airplanes, where the engines are not what they call synchronized where they are not running at exactly the same speed. When they are not synchronized, you hear something that goes WOWW, WOWWW, WOWWW there is a periodicity of WOWWING, and it might be quite far apart, or it might be quite close together going WOWWOWWOWWOWWOW or WAAH-WAAH-WAAH. And these are, then, how often then they do get for a moment in phase, and then go out again. So that periodicity is orderly. There are so many rounds before you get to where the gears mesh. Only every so often the gears are quite different but every so often they sync in. So, I see then that there are a great many WOWS that occur at greater periods of time for instance Halley's comet comes around every 70 years. And we have other phenomena that must come around in 178, and then as far as up to just very recently, men knew of novae when stars explode, and they had one observed historically, and so they occur from time to time, that's about all you can say, there's no predicting when the next novae will occur no sense of periodicities that we know about.
If we didn't know of any periodicity, then it seems disorderly. So randomness is when you haven't been around long enough, you don't have enough time span to judge, to realize that there are periodicities, there is orderliness there after all. That's all I'm trying to get at.
This became very interesting, really, thinking in terms of lifetimes and frequencies, and now there are accelerations and information coming into it, but at any rate, it began to become very clear that myopically, you would think that it would tend to look very disorderly. I find that when people do not look at enough information, tend then to feel quite dismayed, and we find in our particular society today in great dismay over what seems to be getting increasingly disorderly. It seems to be more and more out of control. And so it is very easy for writers to be very negative.
I find, then, these same people are very they are very eager for the next news. And they keep getting more and more news, and the higher and higher the frequency of the news, they're really looking more and more myopic just today, just tonight.
So, from that viewpoint the more you just localize on the news, the more you concentrate on it, the more disorderly things are going to seem. Like the newspapers find, then, that the people are only looking for disorder, and they find that only bad news is saleable. There have been survey after survey by the publishers who find that good news is just not saleable. And they have to sell their newspapers in order to be able to get advertising, because their own money is made through the advertising, so they have to find what is saleable. And bad news seems to be saleable.
And I just want to point out that it would be very, very desirable, to people who are specialized and separated from one another and tending not to see enough of anything to tend to be discouraged. And the way in which I have been able to present order to you is by looking thru very, very large spans. You can only get that order as you begin to get the larger the span of time, the larger the span of experiences to look at, the more opportunity you have to see the order.
It became very exciting to me, thinking on these matters, when Einstein took great note of the fact that there was apparently a top speed of radiation, not just of light first he measured light, but then he found all other radiations had apparently the same speed, in vaccuo absolutely nothing to oppose them energy linearly was traveling 186,000 miles a second as radiation. So he came then to the conclusion that the Universe really does have a limit on the velocity side. Einstein was thinking in contradistinction I said to Newton, who was thinking of "at rest." And to Newton "at rest" was the norm, and Einstein said "the norm" is 186,000 miles a second that is the top and any other thing we can get is by interference and how it ties itself up in knots. That's how he was able to develop this equation, the amount of energy in its mass related then to that speed of radiation at the second power. Why? Because radiation was omnidirectional, and not linear, so it would have to be to the second power, which is the surface rate of growth of the linear.
It is a very beautiful equation you see there. And really very comprehendible when you take his argument that "norm" would be, then, unleashed energy absolutely nothing to block it. All the rest you have to understand and explain it by the number of interferences and blockages. The self-blockages of an inherently complex Universe. Because Unity is Plural, and therefore something that can interfere with itself.
We find, then, the, I became very excited to discover that various, we're really going back to that importing-exporting idea I gave you of the energies being given off and the stars are all entropic and giving off their radiation. All entropic systems, then, gradually expanding and becoming more and more disintegrated, and the parts come further and further apart, with less and less critical proximity one to the other.
I said, and the scientists, they are not thinking about this kind of annihilation where I can annihilate one and then put it back in again at another point -I simply precessed. What did I do with that one little member? I precessed it 90 degrees. That's all. And one little precession affected the energy on this, made it precess disappear one disappear.
Now, understand then, the energies coming then to terminal ends in the time sense where there is a maximum disintegration, but there are other systems that are disintegrating this means then that the disintegration from this one this way, and from other ones, gradually begin to get into some concentrations with one another, and we get where there are these reconcentrations, and suddenly we get where your proximity to the disintegrating star from this other one you're near to that one than you were to your own disintegrating star of yesterday. Where suddenly, this then is the birth of the new. This is the syntropic. Where you get into critical proximity and you begin to come together again, so I saw that there was really a beautiful moment of maximum dispersal and maximum disorder which probably would relate because of the radiation to the radiation maximum. Therefore, there would be also a maximum disorder. There would be a top of disorder, and that top of the disorder is when you're most disintegrated, but just at the point when the other is just taking over the new groups are forming. It gets to be quite exciting to realize that that is also terminal. And it is absolutely, I am sure, it is exactly proportional to the speed of light now
We have then this is what began to tell me then, they get to the point where this second new grouping this is periodic, so there is suddenly a new birth, and a new birth. And so, for that kind of WOWW you'd have to wait for 10 billion years and nobody's around to remember that WOWW, and then you wait l0 billion years and WOWW (everybody laughs) this is when you discover there is really no disorder all the time. It finally came together. That's the last two to get together! This I find a very, very, very satisfying in realization of an eternally regenerative universe where you can see, this one phases out and then appears there one went out and then reappears there you see how that goes on?
You see, then, also how special case experiences DNA-RNA are always one less than the real eternity. So you see how you phase out, because this is the three phase, and this is the four phase. This is the generalized case, and that is the special case. So that the general is always "one up" on the special, so if somebody seems to come apart, another one is waiting over here to join again.
Now, just in relation to my talking that way, you couldn't help but be interested in my own experience three years ago we were doing World Game in Poughkeepsie and Boston University was it about 3 or 4 years ago Meddy? And sitting in the front row, I spoke three times that day in Boston, at different parts, and I saw this man always sitting in front, and he turned out to be a Russian physicist who was visiting at Harvard. And he and another Russian physicist and an MIT Physics Professor, and a Harvard professor asked if they could come out to see me that weekend. And they had been having a very important kind of a physicists conference there at Cambridge. And they said that they had found my one on, one off that they had really been able to substantiate this physically. They were really confirming my explanation of annihilation to you.
Now, there are a number of ways for them to show up. These things begin to show up in many ways.
Now, the next thing we'll go on back to my specialization. I have apparently made a very big digression from specialization. Every little child demonstrates to us as born their interest in the whole Universe. It is really one of the most beautiful things about a child it's interest in the macrocosm and the microcosm. And there are no enthusiasts for the planetarium quite like the children. They love this thinking in a big way, and they ask their parents the most beautiful questions about the relatedness of the bigness. They are looking for these generalized explanations.
And the parents then, so deeply specialized and so engaged in their special life, they are not able to give this kid the kind of generalized explanation that the child would really like to have. So we find human beings are born and demonstrating a proclivity to be generalists to deal in total information. Because after you're a specialist you're not going to have enough of the, or know any opportunity to get at the generalizations the more specialized you become.
So, we say, how did it happen that humanity became specialized. And I find that as I came into the game of life, where I told you the other day, earning a living was much more, seeming absolutely imperative when I was young that is not considered to be in your day. It is actually a very great change in its own right. But, in that same time I found it was assumed that specialization is highly desirable, in fact inextricable, inevitable, and a great advantage, because if you get to be a specialist, then you're going to have your own little toll gate that society is going to have to go through, and your living is probably assured. So it has been really very easy to promote that specialization.
I began to wonder, how did it happen that society having been born with the propensity to be a comprehensivist, ends up by being a specialist and having the working conviction this is what you're supposed to do, and there is the very best advantage to be gained from it? So, I thought, and pondered, and explored this idea a very great deal.
Alfred North Whitehead, a very great natural philosopher came to Harvard from the European University England. And he came there early in the century, and he noted, at Harvard University, which was then relatively small as all universities were. He noted that at Harvard, they were instituting an entirely new educational concept. They were developing special graduate schools. At the European universities, you could become an expert in a subject living within the general colleges and finding out where a professor was who was best informed on that particular subject you'd look him up, or you could find the authority in your library. You as an individual went venturing into different places where the expertise existed, but you didn't have to have a special university or a special campus to live in.
But Harvard was the first to actually institute special campus, special buildings, special staff-faculty for the graduate school. And Whitehead noted that Harvard having done that, there was great popular applause of the idea in America. And maybe the popular applause came because the people who were instituting it may have owned the newspapers but anyway there was popular applause, and it was rationalized that America loved all-star teams, and by having the very best first baseman, and the best pitcher and so forth they could keep winning games, so it was like specialization was going to make the American economy one where you had all stars out here, and we'd have a very prosperous economy.
The idea was so popularized over it, that immediately the other private universities began to copy, and then gradually it became such a demonstration that the people who had monetary advantage seemed to be educated, and so therefor the man who wanted to get elected, found its constituency could get their high school, and then he's got to get them their college, and then he's got to get them a graduate school. So the graduate school idea proliferated very, very rapidly. Whitehead writes about this and writes about this very well. And he said then at the Universities, and where they then deliberately sifted out the seeming bright from the dulls by examinations, and they deliberately undertook to persuade the brights to go on into the graduate school, and not all of them did go, but the cull who did get there were the ones that were sifted out as apparently bright.
So, these brights in the graduate school then, found themselves in a very much more specialized field than ever before each one had to be specialists within a special field. So it began to, all the energy of that individual became more and more linear, instead of being in a wide angle, it's getting to this very narrow angle, and this gets to be a very powerful acceleration. Just like you take a candle flame that it's center is radiating in all directions, and put a reflector behind it, and you very greatly concentrate it even brings it down to a very fine and you get an enormous amount of energy so that a little candle flame has been able to serve in a lighthouse where you couldn't see the candle by itself more than a quarter of a mile or a half mile or something like that, then suddenly you are seeing it several miles after you concentrate it down with the beaming.
So, we find that all these individuals at the graduate schools began to be find linear acceleration each one finding himself way out in his particular subject. And each one finding himself way out in his particular subject would realize that nobody could come into his place and say I see what you're doing. It had already gone beyond that obvious kind of phase, so he would not think of going into the other man's laboratory and say I see what you're doing.
So, Whitehead pointed out that while, then, society had culled out all the brights and made them all specialists, the specialists couldn't put things together when it came to meetings with one another, they began to talk about baseball, because they realized in their own experience they lacked the integrity to talk about the other man's specialty. So, inasmuch as the specialist couldn't put things together on behalf of society, the wealth is not being realized as it should be so, as Whitehead then pointed out, having selected the brights from the dulls, you had to leave it to the dulls to put things together. And this begins what I call Whitehead's dilemma.
And we find then that the fairly brights but not bright enough to go on into specialties went on to be, though, pretty good football players, got to be president and vice-president, the heads of big corporations. And, they were too attractive, and pretty good playboys, so they didn't get into that specialization stuff. So, as heads of the corporations, they would then hire specialists from the universities, because they could remember about a friend who was a specialist, and so they had him in for a special task. Well, now, as the head of the corporation they'd say, I can't possibly we make automobiles, and we agree that automobiles will not run over the open fields, so we're going to have to have highways, but we can't afford for the automobile company to build all those highways, so what we do is to make our automobiles very attractive on racetracks, and automobile shows, and have the people demand the automobile and then the really quite dull politicians will realize they can get elected by satisfying people's longings to get one of those automobiles to start rolling, so the politicians will build all the roads.
So we find that the lower the order of brightness, the larger the responsibility. And when you get to international affairs you'll see where we are today. You may wear striped pants very beautifully, you may be very charming, but they do not tend to see things in a comprehensive way. Now, I simply then, come to further examination how it happens that we get to be specialists, and this brings me to several very important large-scale thinkings again about human beings on board of our planet. In order to be designed as we apparently were designed, naked absolutely helpless for months and absolutely ignorant, so that we would be then able to discover ourselves, and to get to our own artifacts in putting something on because you're cold, or whatever it may be. We find then the individuals all being born naked and helpless. They obviously would not be and where such a large amount of us are water, that we could freeze, we certainly couldn't have been born naked up in the Arctic. So I began to say, where would this naked life probably have to be, and certainly lying there as a good mouthful for a lion for months you can't even move yourself, so you'd be good prey for the lions, and the lion can knock down the parents very easily. So this would be pretty good lion eating. So you have to be someplace where there aren't lions. You couldn't be where you're going to freeze to death, and there couldn't be lions, so when I got down to the "where are the most propitious parts on our globe for life to be born naked and helpless, I came then, to quite clearly the coral atolls of the South Pacific. Unquestionably the great barrier reefs there break those enormous waves, and inside those lovely lagoons are full of fish and all kinds of eatables, and the very, very easy shoaling lovely sands and you could climb in and out of that as a baby practically, and on the shores coconuts falling down full of milk, and all kinds of things to eat, and no big animals to eat you so I came to the conclusion life being born naked and helpless, probably on the coral atolls, then began to have experience after experience with that water. Because logs fell into the water, and they found the log floated and the stone sunk. So they learned, then, if you wanted to stay on top of the water you get on top of some logs. They began then, to try out rafts, and they could go out and get more of the fish out of the lagoon with the raft. Then they find the raft blows around in the lagoon; and if there were still some of the branches of the logs with their leaves, it blows a little faster. And they found that the logs when the wind was blowing on them, one log would roll over, so you'd get two logs that a branch fell over them, and you'd lash it to them so that they didn't roll anymore. So that's much more comfortable non-rolling logs than rolling logs. Sop you get at least two of them and you're out on your raft, with your logs bound together, fishing down in between here, and you find that when the wind is blowing, the logs do not just blow to leeward we call it going downwind. Not at all just look at a log and on the side this way there is a very small frontal area. So when the wind is blowing on it, it goes in the direction of least resistance, so that it will go this way it is a little down wind, but it has leaves up on the branches still on the logs of the raft, that makes it a little more windy so with the wind blowing on it it begins to go in the direction of the logs, and not downwind.
Gradually, men began to discover with those logs that they could put down another fairly thin piece of log down in the water and they could make it then, particularly then when the wind was blowing, make it go a little bit to windward. We find then the in-to-the wind sailing beginning as far as artifacts go in history today, it is very probable that the beginnings of navigation, where they went off shore completely, no landmarks to go by whatsoever, where they began to deal in we now know very beautifully the design of their guys, their sticks crossing sticks, they went from the the rising of this star to the setting of that star. They went between, so there were two stars and themselves. This is the beginning, I am sure, of trigonometry. At any rate, to me, then, these people who were near the water learned they could even sail to windward and not have to go drift with the winds and drift with the tides, began to then be really self-determining, which direction you want to go. You actually deliberately go to windward you can't go straight to windward, you have to "beat" to windward and they learned to do that very beautifully. These were lovely crafts, these trawlers and they still make 20 knots, and they've probably been this way for thousands, and thousands, and thousands of years.
I think, then, that man began on the coral atolls, and he began absolutely naked and being naked his skin exposed, you get pigmentation. He's going to get brown he's going to get tanned very deeply, and you get finally inbreeding where those particular kinds of genes will begin to possibly stay there, those characteristics so we find in that Polynesia, a pretty dark-skinned Polynesian.
Then, when these people began to be able to sail westward, and they come to the South East Coast of Asia to the Thai area and so forth, coming in through the islands, they are getting to bigger and bigger islands, and finally to the mainland they came to the mainland, where I'm sure for thousands of years the pattern indicates as we first come to it, that they then moored their raft or their sailing craft just offshore, where you could reach out to the land in the daytime, but you didn't want to go there in the nighttime when all those animals were roaming. But in the daytime, you could handle things, so gradually they kept going on the land, and they began to gradually tame and domesticate elephants and sheep and all kinds of animals that were much bigger than themselves.
And with those sheep, and goats, and so forth pretty easy to skin them, they began to follow their goats and their sheep, and the grasses grew better and better up mildly seasonal going up the hills, in the monsoons, when the green grasses went up there, they went up the mountains with their sheep and, then it got very cold at night. And they now, then, were eating their sheep, and they had the skins of sheep to put on themselves, so they weren't getting cold anymore. And then they would learn how to skin, taking the kind of spars and rigging they had done in the boats, could take a number of the sheep were going along carrying their own skins, and they came to a place where they'd take several trees and bend them towards each other and make a tripod or more trees still, and cover them with the skins of the sheep so they had the skins on their body directly and the secondary skin of their yurt their hut.
We find the people being able to get into colder and colder climate, and tribe after tribe following their sheep, begin to get broken up where some of the sheep went this way, and some of them went that way, and some of the members of the tribe went off with these, and they never got together again. Going off from the Southeast Asia, tending to follow as man did, the sun, identifying the sun very powerfully with the metabolic processes they don't know the word metabolic, they don't understand photosynthesis, but the point is that they recognize that something that has to do with that sun. That sun seems to be going that way there is a proclivity landing on the Southeast of Asia to work toward Northwest. And so we have human beings working westward and it is an incredibly large continent with all kinds of incredible mountains and deserts, where they're getting separated one from the other. And as they separated one from another we have the chieftain, then, has the procreative urge, and the only one to procreate with, the only female around is his own grand daughter, so there was an enormous inbreeding among the surviving types. And we have, then, Darwin's type of survival where he had discovered, for instance, that the wild horses with wild horses there is every once in a while a stallion that is born bigger than the other young stallions. He didn't ask to be bigger, but that big stallion then suddenly finds itself being attacked, into battle by the king stallion, who is the big stallion of the herd the biggest there was. And he has a battle with the new, young, big stallion, and whichever one wins is the one that's going to inseminate the herd. And that's the way that Darwin saw the strongest strains being concentrated. He didn't have the words genetics at that time, but he saw the strain, he used the word "strain" would then be highly concentrated.
So, we have in the same way, these tribes breaking up, working westward over those incredible lands, just working, not fast at all, just going along in their local circulatings around with their sheep and goats and so forth, their wild horses. And gradually getting terribly separated out, and the type that do survive under special these are very special conditions, as you go up the mountainside in different kinds of weather, and you get, and then you go into deserty areas. And you see the types that survive best as the chieftain in that area marrying the girl who survives best in that kind of area. So they get to be highly concentrating. What you do in this inbreeding, what you do is breed out general adaptability, and breed in special capability for this special set of conditions. So, for that particular kind of environment, they turn out to be the most liable to survive.
So we have, by the time these people are really reaching way to Russia, Russia in dealing with the most northwestwardly of that total continental area had 148 nations to deal with the word "nation" being then tribes that had been isolated one from another for such long periods, thousands of years as to begin to inbreed special facial characteristics that they literally look differently, they sound differently, they smell differently by inbreeding these special conditions. So Russia had 148 nations to integrate when she tried to in putting together the Soviets, so it was a very extraordinary kind of a challenge.
But, what we call a nation the United States is not even mildly a nation. There were some Indian nations that were here. There are some Indian nations still here today that were highly inbred the same way in their wanderings. But we have, America is cross-breeding world man anything but a nation. It is very important to make these distinctions as you consider all our problems today, and ways of solving problems and so forth, and things that are being said by people carelessly just parroting and so forth.
I'm coming back then to these people moving Northwestwardly and getting more and more covered up because it was so cold up in those mountains, and they had to go through incredible numbers of mountain passes, very cold, and they had to hibernate had to stay in the caves during those very bad wintery times of the snows. So we have people getting more and more covered up and therefore beginning gradually bleaching out a little more. And so the characteristics of those who are tending to bleach out, then they begin to get concentrated in the genetics. By the time we get completely far northwest, we come to very white skin, very, very blond hair.
Something I also want to point out to you is that the people coming from those islands also went not all up in the northwest, some of them went sailing to windward across the, using the monsoon and different winds across the Indian Ocean, where part of the year you're really blow over to Africa, and part of the year you're blow back to India, and the straight settlements and so forth. So a number of them crossed to very hot areas, and to get into very hot and relatively arid getting equatorially, they tended to get blacker and blacker. There was a concentration to do that. They hit East Africa and they moved in enormous you get finally going across the, just South of the Sahara was formed and you get into a great bulge of where Nigeria is 25% of all the Africans. Where there is a pooling that had gone all the way west and then a pooling backwardly. And the flow of them went that way and then down Southeast and finally got to be Zulus and the Swazis and so forth, going into South Africa.
We have the blacks, then, representing another pigmentation of the best kind of skin to really be living under the equatorial sun, and the kind of I've been a visiting professor at all the universities across that equatorial Africa, and when you get in Northern Nigeria we get up to Cano and so forth, you're getting into what they're calling the "Hamatran" and the really enormous dust storms coming off the Sahara, and the whole sky is just full of it, and you find your nose and your mouth really drying up and your lips tending to come out like this. The very characteristics of the African begin to be really you feel it in your own features. So I simply say to you, very simply to me, the original skinned man is a dark-skinned man, and the white is very Johnny come lately, and the very, very dark ones, they go on a little like the white from the more or less Polynesian darkness. And, I've often found myself in very large numbers as I say I've been in Africa a great deal, but in Africa I say, "Let's all turn our hands towards the roof," where the sun couldn't get to it, it's the same pink. Take off your shoes and look at that it's the same thing pink. I say then, there is absolutely no such thing as race. Let's cut out the nonsense. You've got enormous inbreeding of special genetic families to get enormous temporary(?) area, but now that is all getting over and we're cross breeding back again.
Now, in the same terms, then, I'm talking about my specialization, and I gave you the chieftain. I spoke about the big stallion. I'm sure that early human beings, born naked and helpless and so forth, every once in a while, a big male is born. He didn't ask to be bigger, but he is bigger and we take the total surface of our earth which is three-quarters covered with water, and 25% of it is covered with land, a very great deal of which is rock and desert and mountains, and so forth untenable and there are places where the conditions were such that vegetation grew and would immediately support life, so for probably not much more than 10% of total of our planet is really producing foods, and those early days maybe down to 1% where things are immediately favorable to support your life. And that 1% is broken up in tiny little packages all over the place. So that the people who are lucky for the moment, suddenly find something going wrong there is a fire, there is a draught, and particularly as you get on that mainland, getting away from the bigger sea picture, where there were fish and everything. As you begin to get on that dry land, we find, then, the once in a while there is this big guy being born, and in a place where they're just living on bananas. And the little man says, "I can't reach the banana big man, will you reach me one of those bananas," so the big man reaches the banana.
Then, very, very soon the people find that they are being invaded by people who have run out of bananas, and they've had droughts and fires, and so forth; and the people are absolutely critically hungry, and they're going to fight for their lives. And then, they (the one's with the bananas) find themselves being invaded, so they say, "Mr. Big Man, you've got to get out there in front and protect us we're just little fellows we can't do as much as you big fellows get out there." So the big man didn't ask for it, he didn't ask to be big, but he suddenly finds himself being inducted particularly into this fighting business.
So, I think I got into this with you a little bit the other day, and I said then, this same big man, having been brought into the fighting, needed then to command things, between fights he found the fights occurred fairly often. So he could get prepared for the fights he said you've got to get a lot of food together for me, for my fighters, because we are pretty hungry characters, and we also need some spears we have to have time to make weapons so we can prepare for that enemy. See, if we had these kind of weapons, we'd fool them. So that we have the big man begins to find himself commanding things in peace times as well as in wartime. So he also, then, as THE BIG MAN, he's the biggest there is around. And he finds that he, because he's commanding everything, these other big men are born, and they say, "this man's got it pretty good, he's king, I think I can lick him."
So, the king finds himself being challenged time and again by a big guy, and he finds he can lick them all. But, intuitively, without having to have any kind of education, he just fundamentally says "don't let two of those big guys come at me at once." THIS IS THE BEGINNING OF THE GRAND STRATEGY OF THE POWER STRUCTURE DIVIDE AND CONQUER. And to keep conquered, keep divided. So nothing could be more fundamental and important to power structure. So we find then, the big man saying, I need you other big men when the wars come, so I don't want to annihilate you, but I want to make you keep apart from one another during peace time. And I want to get you coming together with me, and I want you to train a lot of soldiers over at your place and come together , and we'll go hunting once in a while to kind of have a little conference about things here keep track of you. So we have the big man commanding things, and being annoyed from time to time by a lot of little people who disobey his orders, not the big men.
And he gets so bothered by the fact that they are stealing things from him, and they're breaking his orders and he cannot be able to get things ready for the war. He then says you've got to bring in this character. He tells a Big Man, "bring in this little character" and he gets the little character there, and he says, "You really are a trouble maker, and the only thing there is to do is cut your head off," and the little man says to the king, "Mr. King, you're making a great mistake cutting my head off," and the king says "You're impertinent also Why should I not cut your head off?"
And he says, "Mr. King, I happen to understand the language of your enemy over the hill, and you don't. And I've heard what he says he's going to do to you, and you don't know about that." And the king says, "Well young man, you've got a pretty good idea there and you report to me everyday about what my enemy over the hill is saying, and your head is going to stay on. And then you're going to do something you never did ever before, you're going to eat regularly how do you like that? You're going to eat right at my table, right up here at the castle."
So the little man agrees to do that, and so these people who have been making trouble for him he brings them in, and one by one they tell him about special things they can do. And this man can make a better sword than anybody else, and understands metallurgy, so he has to prove it, and the king makes him prove it. And he makes it, there is no question about it a beautiful sword. So he says, "You just make swords, and keep on that metallurgy," and somebody else is stealing from him, and he says, "But Mr. King, the reason I can steal from you is that I understand arithmetic, and you don't, and if I use my arithmetic, I can keep other people from stealing from you," so the king keeps him on too.
So now he has, what he did then, is make each one of these people specialists. But he said, "You mind your business, you understand that?" "you mind your business," "you mind your business," and I'm the only one that minds everybody's business is that good and clear to everybody?" So he is, without knowing about SYNERGY, he becomes the only one who is in the position to have the integrated information, and has the synergetic advantage, which multiplies with him, really very rapidly. The other people are in a disintegrative position. So they don't get the SYNERGETICS that he gets. Now, we find that he gets so powerful with all his specialists, that he has the right logistics, and he has the right information, and he has the right tools and everything so he becomes King over a very large realm. And he has all these other, different specialists working for him here, some of them taking care of breeding his horses, somebody else making special harnesses for the horses, or whatever it may be. And we have him now getting old, and he wants his son to take over.
And so he says, "I see you're getting pretty old, Mr. Linguist, and you're getting pretty old Mr. Mathematician, and so forth. So I want you to teach somebody about that language, I want you to teach somebody about that metallurgy, and I want you to teach somebody about the mathematics or whatever it is." And this is actually the foundation of our educational system. This is simply it was a grand strategy of the power structure to keep divided, and what he did, then, was to make all the intellectuals, all the people who were bright but not big physically, he used the metaphysicals to be specialists. And this is the way he kept it absolutely under his control, because there were really plenty bright enough really to outsmart him if he didn't make them a specialist. You can see that in no time. That they would be outsmarting that they'd be getting a lot of big people to work for them, and they were so smart that they would be the brains. So he turned those brains to his absolute special account.
We find, then, there is something that goes on in the geography of our world. When we got to the north, the further north you go the colder it is going to get, as I pointed out. There is something called "annual variation." And around the equator of the earth the annual variation is only about 10 degrees, from the coldest to the warmest. You get very cold the cold pole of the northern hemisphere is in Verkhoyansk in eastern Siberia, and there the annual variation runs over 120 degrees between the coldest and the warmest. Now, the more annual variation you have, the more kinds of environments you have to live with, therefore the more adaptive you have to be, the more inventive to get on. So as the people got into colder and colder country, they had to invent more ways of coping with the cold. So they invented, then, the coat, and they invented their yurt, and they invented ways of warming themselves with the fire, and ways of getting the fire going, or whatever it may be. We find them developing all kinds of tools then to cut. We find that historically, what I call the northerly people have very great advantage over the southerly people in great campaigns. If you were born in South Africa by Lake Victoria, you want to get to the other side of the lake because there is something you know is over there that is very good food of some kind . You don't want to walk around over the ends of the stumps and trying on the trees. You find that the trees fall in the water and they float, so you can make yourself a boat and go right across. So, if you live by Lake Victoria you invent boats.
But if you lived in Asia, here, by lake Baikal, you would invent boats in the summer, but you would invent skates in the winter. I wanted to point out that you'd have to deal with the different kinds of environments. So the more kinds of environments, the more inventive people became. This did not mean that they were more inventive, but because they had more occasion to employ their inventiveness. This is very important, not to make those differentiations, saying the people in the south are dull, but that mistake could be made.
I find, then, people coming out of the north, down to the subcontinent here of India. There were people who came all the Chinese and Mongols, and so forth, coming time and again India was invaded from the north. And they found enormous numbers of these cross-breeding people from coming there by boat from all over the place. India, then, as a conqueror came in and overwhelmed them with his northerly tools, this southerly people, then the conqueror said "You've got a very beautiful religion, don't you let anybody change that lovely religion, and you've got a beautiful religion, don't let anybody change your religion, and you've got a beauty. You've got a lovely language, don't let anybody change that. They kept every kind of differentiation, and have every kind of a caste of people. Anyway you could differentiate just to keep conquered to keep divided, so there is no possible way they could get together. This has been the grand strategy of the conqueror always.
I said we wanted to get to, then, how it happened to be that we are specialized today, and it simply is a consequence then of the power structure, whether they get to be a corporate power structure, or government always wanting then to keep everybody specialized, but also to keep them busy. Idle hands make trouble. So you find, then, the politicians, everybody wanting to get more jobs out there for the people keep everybody busy. Maybe not producing anything that you eat, but keep them busy, keep them out of the way. So they may be digging up something that might make some money out of one of these days so at any rate . This is why specialization is really here. I want you to really understand that. Because you and I know all of us were really born to be comprehensivists. It's very important to know how this came into our economy and to our general way of thinking, because it is going to have to go. And we're coming to I'm going to go through another historical set of events.
Coming back to Egypt. With this data we now have going back to the earliest real communication to us from people of the past, of any important degree, goes back 8000 years. And we find the pharaoh and the average life expectancy I am told would be by the actuarians and all these statistics we can have, was probably somewhere 20-2l years of age. That was the average life. And in that 20 you find an Alexander the Great, a great leader at a very early age. Life was short and very powerfully actuated out. We find, then, the average human being found life so incredibly challenged, so disastrous, so "not-enough-to-go-round," so diseased, that nobody could conceive of this life being worthwhile in its own right. So a very general, common way of looking at things was that this life is purely a test, an example, to see whether you can qualify to get into the great afterlife. Everything was afterlife.
So, if you were then in Egypt in those times, and you know from experience that apparently there is only enough for the Pharaoh really to have anything, therefore if you can get the Pharaoh into the next life, everybody tells you he's your great leader, that he's a God he must be a God to have such a different just look at the kind of life he has he's in on that life support, and nobody else has it. So we hope that this semi-God can get over in the afterlife, and then if he can he may bring us, his people, over there with him.
So realizing that there is so much vandalism, when people are so absolutely desperately hungry, they'll steal anything, they assume then that the Pharaoh is going to need all the tools and anything you know about to be able to get over to the next life, so that he'd be able to organize things over there. So you build this enormous stone tower a pyramid and put the Pharaoh and all the tools he's going to need below it, to try to keep the vandals out, so that he has a chance to get over there and to get you over there with him.
We have in all buildings, what we call scaffolding. Things you have to do to realize the building in due course, so there is an enormous amount of scaffolding and pre-conditioning work that has to be done to realize a building. So we have in building the pyramids an enormous amount of work they had to do to get that stone cut, to get it moved, and to get it piled one on top of another. And so whoever is the individual who the Pharaoh trusts most to do the designing, the one who seems to be the most inventive and seems to organize best, I'm going to call him the Leonardo of his period. The Pharaoh picks him to design the building of his pyramid, so that the Leonardo-type then sees he is a very observant character, and realizes, "Yes, hat's the principle of leverage," so he begins to use leverage for men to move rocks, very much greater than their own muscles can move. And they get very inventive then about one thing and another.
And he sees his men dying of starvation, right on the job, and he sees he's an observant man, so he sees that where the Nile is adjacent to the lands there is green, but where water can't get at it the green stops, so he invents the idea of making ditches coming in from the Nile, and irrigation, and he finds, sure enough, the green goes there, so he is able to take care of keeping his workers with a little bit better food supply, and after the Pharaoh dies, and the Leonardo they put him in with the Pharaoh to get to the next world a little earlier as a reward. And so there is another Pharaoh coming along and the people say he needs his tomb also to get him to the next life. So he gets his designer. And this designer finds that the irrigation ditches haven't gone he recognizes those, and he's using the levers of the other man. There is a gradual accumulation with each one of the pharaohs, and the successive generations, of more and more know-how of tooling to get things ready, the things that you have to do to do the thing in this life, which is the pyramid it's just a scaffolding to get you into the next life. You must understand that. It wasn't really meant for anything other than to get you into the next life.
So there was an enormous amount of make-ready for the make-ready the tools that make the tools. And there was an accumulation. And finally there was so much tooling around, and so much know-how had been accumulated, you didn't know that that was going to go on in this life at all, because you were only working for the next life. But in this life you were getting all this too, so you say, you know we could take care of the Pharaoh, and also the nobles. So then the nobles get in on it and this is the beginning of the second set of dynasties of Egypt.
Finally with each successive one, there's been more, more activities, and therefore more inventiveness in this life. So there is an increase in the velocity which technology and know-how is beginning to increase. And finally we get to the point where there is so much know-how, they say, you know we could take care of the Pharaoh in the after life, and the nobles, and all those rich middle class. And that's the beginning that's the Greek and Roman period, where you find the mausoleums for all the rich, wealthy middle-class, with their enormous amount of slaves down below the whole thing it's absolutely slave. This extraordinary Greece is there, but because of all the slaves the substrata.
Now we have then the more and more accumulation of getting ready to take care of the middle class and the nobles and the Pharaoh, so much acceleration in know-how, that suddenly we have Buddha, and then 600 years later approximately a Christ and a Mohammed whichever it may be, some human beings were around who said, "You know, we have enough capability to take care of everybody's afterlife they really saw a redeeming of everybody. So this was a fantastic new moment. So all of the post-Christian period of building enormous cathedrals, everybody getting everybody ready for the after-life. This proliferated the acquisition of the know-how, and multiplied it very rapidly. Points pretty quickly said, you know, we can take care of the afterlife of everybody, but also there is enough to take care of the living life of the king. It gets to be a new moment of so the divine right of kings here.
Then there is such a proliferation of capability, that we say, "We can take care of the afterlife of everybody and the living life of the king and the nobles, and that is the magna carta time. And suddenly we have such a proliferation of our capabilities that we said "We can take care of the afterlife of everybody and the living life of the king, and the nobles, and the great middle class. And that is the Victorian period. It was really right up to most of the older buildings of Philadelphia here. This is the great middle class coming in. Then suddenly we have such a proliferation of information, that in this century, we have really the Henry Ford kind of an idea saying, you know, there is enough capability here to take care of the after life of everybody, and also the living life of everybody. Now, this is a very new moment because up to this time, the people who produced these things were artists, they were skilled craftsmen, so that great middle class period, I was born into, and I saw a great deal of there was a cabinetmaker downtown making the furniture, that was the only place you could get furniture. There was no other furniture. And somebody was making shoes, and they ware making clothes. But it is all tailor everything is one of for the rich patron.
So, in the newest era, you get finally to where there were not enough artists to take care of everybody. So what happened was that the artists then, which really were the Leonardo-type, in a sense tending to be inventors or whatever, the artists began to invent the tools, and the tools made the end-product. And you suddenly had what I gave you here earlier today, energy getting on the ends of the levers, and the energy taking over the muscle part of it, where you really had man engaged with the tools embodying the know-how. This is the industrialization I spoke to you about coming in.
So we're suddenly are in an entirely new era. The first time in all history where that first tool is the word, that literacy has suddenly gone rampant in humanity, where it was not there when I was young at all. The workmen I first worked with were very keen with their tools doing their "one ofs" and so forth, but they had very small vocabularies a hundred words or so, and really primarily talked about how they spit. And 50% were blasphemous or obscene. So I saw that all changing, and change in an absolutely unexpected way nothing to do with the school system whatsoever.
I've spoken to you before about the experience I had of I don't know how much experience I had of it, but whether I like it or not, I was born in the year that Marconi invented the radio, but it doesn't get into practical use until I was 12. I was 3 years old when the electron was discovered, but nobody pays any attention to that kind of stuff. And so, also I said, I was 7 when the airplane was first flying. Now, just seeing about the radio-side of things, I was 23 the first time we got a human voice over the radio. It happened in the navy, and I was in that operation. When I was 27 we had the first licensed broadcasting station very, very recent. And then, later on, almost a generation later comes TV. Now I want you to think about our hearing we can hear at 700 miles an hour, that's the speed of sound at a given temperature. But we can see at 700 million miles an hour, exactly a million times faster. We can only hear a very short distance, and we can't hear outside of our atmosphere at all because these are air waves. We can see, looking at that Andromeda a million years ago. We can see a million years ago! We can see a million years ago!
The range of the information we can get with our eyes compared to what we can get with our hearing, is approximately one million fold right across the board! And furthermore, the hearing is in ethnic languages special words. The seeing is in a universal language. You feel that mountain, you feel that water, and you don't have to have a name for it. And a horse race is just the same in Japan as it is in France visually. So we simply get at the multiplication of information handling that came with this, was just incredible. Now we have, historically, through all the long periods I've been giving you we have the male, as in all mammals, the male tending to sweep out larger areas than the female with the young. Whether it's herds or whatever it is, because the mother can't move around as well. She has to be near that young for it to nurse and feed. The male is free, the male is an island and he operates that way. And he goes hunting, and he brings back for the tribe, or we find the human man, then, going off to a large hunting area and bringing things back in for the women to decide what she should do with it. Whether she's going to cook it or skin it, or breed it, or what she may do. And, she makes those decisions, but at any rate throughout all the ages, Daddy has been the one who brought home the news. He brought home all the information about what's outside. And Daddy and Mom together told you about what grandfather said, and what the king said and so forth. So everybody the kids in the home the only authority they have is their parents. Absolute authority about what it's all about. And the way Daddy or Mom says it, that's the way you say it, and Mommy and Dad didn't hear too well, and they began to illiterate more and more, and they had a mouth full of something someone talking with their mouth full and say something in a strange way. Gradually the languages became multi-fold, and really very locally esoteric getting into local dialects.
We have, then, a very extraordinary thing. In 1927, in May, Daddy's were coming home and the kids said, "Daddy, come in here! in a hurry! Listen to the radio! A man just flew across the Atlantic! And Daddy said, "WHAT?!" And he rushes in and listens, and sure enough, a man did just fly across the Atlantic, alright. AND DADDY NEVER BROUGHT HOME THE NEWS EVER AGAIN. And this is absolutely unexpected historically. There was nothing that said it was going to happen. Nothing that said we were going to have radio, nothing that said we were going to have voice on the radio, nothing that said suddenly from this time on Dad and Mom are listening to that box there talking and quite clearly to the kids without Dad and Mom saying it, the man talking over there is the authority not Dad. He's bringing the news. This man's telling Dad what the news is. There is no passing words about this. There is nothing in the remarks to the kids, but it was just suddenly, ipso facto, obvious to the kids that Dad was not the authority. And this is the way the authority said it. Now the way the man got the job on the radio, he got it by virtue of the versatility of his use of the vocabulary, and particularly the commonality of his language. To be understood by the many. So his diction was usually very, very much better than Daddy's or Mom's. So this is the way the authority is saying it, and so the kids began to say it and emulate, this is the way the authority said it the way they had done before for Daddy he was the authority.
Now it's this way, and Daddy and Mom realize that the kids were saying things a little differently, and they didn't want to be belittled, and they began to say it that way too. This is the way the language changed, and it was just incredible. I went through my daughter growing up through that radio age. She was born the year of the Lindbergh flight and I listened to all this thing happen.
Now, with the television it came very much more so. And, suddenly with television, by the time, you had had your World War II, and everybody knows where Guam is and you didn't know where Guam was before World War II, suddenly everybody knows all the news about all the places around all the world and all the maps are out there, any kid could see it. And the kids were all then every human being full of compassion, every child full of compassion, accepting news from all around the world. And all around the world people are in a lot of trouble, so the kid had compassion for the people in trouble. People in most trouble. You never get the kid to be locally concerned about trouble, his heart goes to everybody. So suddenly we have a young world, inherently concerned with "world." Not with the local anymore.
And I was brought up exactly the opposite. I gave you that map all divided there. My father's taking three months to get to Bombay whatever it was. Where we were really divided, and we were really being told locally, and all I could get around on were my feet. I didn't have later on I got a bicycle, but we didn't have horses, we didn't have that kind of money; and I was simply being told that the people in the next town over here too far for you to go there, but they're very dangerous people, better not go over there, they drink whiskey and have knives. So, you avoided that other town, you really were utterly preoccupied with the local, with your local people, and the way local authorities said, that's the way you did it. The customs were very easy to carry on.
In 1965 we have the Berkeley students at the University of California making the world news as the first university dissidents. And this proliferated very rapidly all over. But, I met with that class, I met with many of their contemporary classes all around, who I think I told you, I've been to over 500 colleges and universities around the world and so, I met that class and we talked a great deal about their life together. The dissidents at Berkeley, they were the first American kids to be born with a television in their home they came absolutely into a different viewpoint, and so they were simply saying, I know Mom and Dad love me very much, and that is perfectly clear. I know they do, and I love them to pieces, too. But they just don't know what's going on. Dad is coming home from the shoe store, and says let's have a beer, and they're just not seeing what's really going on around this world out here. They began very quickly to feel, not only that Dad and Mom had nothing to do with that we were going to the moon, there is something going on here in big patterns of politics, we don't have anything to do with we're going to have war, or what its all about. There was completely the velocity of the information and the ineffectuality of the individual to really respond and say what the action-reaction would be to the feelings of the stimulation of the information not there. So there was more and more of a sense of disconnect, more and more of a sense of the older people being preoccupied in very short-sighted ways, assuming things to be very negative, and the kids saying if we are able to go to the moon, then we ought to be able to do anything. Intuitively, you've got to say that.
So we have a young world feeling, older world there's nothing to do with love anymore, or loyalty at all, it's simply a matter that, I said, every kid did know how to think, and I told you I was being brought up "Never mind what you think, pay attention to people who know what it's about, that's why we sent you to school. That's why we have schools. That everybody is being taught to carry on and think, just the way the army and their training, and their very powerful discipline, and everybody is having to accept it but suddenly this is no longer acceptable. So I find that the young world came in, which is your world, and suddenly the child always had the thinking capability, but it had been suppressed, he'd been told not to use it. But now you couldn't tell the kid not to use it, because he could see that Dad and Mom didn't know what was going on. So he spontaneously sees "I've got to do my own thinking."
I want you to realize what an extraordinary thing nature has done here. I pointed out then, you need an umbilical cord while the child is in the womb, because he has got to get oxygen to purify that blood, and the mother's going to do that, so you connect the child up, because he's not exposed to that oxygen out there. But when the child is out of the womb, then you cut the umbilical cord. Doesn't mean it wasn't good, it is just now obsolete. And I think what nature really did here in a very extraordinarily big way, the grand design of Universe is such then, that we were given this mind and the capability to learn principles and so forth, we had to get to some kind of critical level of information where we really then, now we're supposed and we were given an enormous cushion of resources, which by trial and error, to make an incredible number of mistakes, could really find, learn something. But we're now at a point where we've exhausted the cushion, and we're now where we really have to pass an exam.
When we have, then, a new life gestated in the womb, or in the egg, where, when it really comes out that is an incredibly critical moment of are you really going to make it. And whether you and I humanity has really got enough stuff we have plenty of information, but whether we have the capability to really take the initiative and do the logical things that need to be done, that is a big question. So in my estimate, nature now is actually humanity is in examination, it's final exam, as to whether we really are going to have mind take over, because we're here for mind and not for muscle, and muscle is still completely in the saddle. Boy, what a critical moment we're at! With the $200 million being appropriated to get into the Armageddon. And less and less comfort on the part of the people who are the political leaders, that realizing the people themselves are being very difficult to contain. That this thinking thing is going on, so we have a very, very critical condition where somebody is liable to do something very drastic, and it's going to be all over.
We're in then, as far as I'm concerned, Nature has had tradition through all those years, of Daddy and Mom telling the kids what to do. This is so having gone from absolute ignorance, as that child puts its foot down, you know, a snake is liable to bite him and Dad says, "don't do that darling...keep it up there that kind of a fruit would poison you!" The parents had to do an incredible number of things. They had to go on a great many "hearsays" just in good faith, that "This is my friend and he said to do it this way." There was an incredible amount of ignorance going along in the tradition. So you had tradition to help people consolidate the gains as they integrated information over all those years, but suddenly we got to the point where we had learned enough about principle to be able to really proliferate the information. We have this brilliant video my goodness! This kind of thing nobody really whatever the metaphysical that's you and I the communication lives forever! So this can be broadcast any distance there is something new coming in absolutely new.
I say then, what Nature did then had tradition was like the was a metaphysics. I call it the metabolical cord to keep things under control until man gets to the critical point where he really knew enough to be out on his own, and Nature now cuts the metabolical cord of tradition, and you're really on your own. You can really understand what my feelings are about you at your age. Having, making the kind of observation I am making, as, just trying to look at big patterns. There they are. I'm talking absolutely the truth. So I feel, all my hope is in this young world and its things I note about it. And I note particularly about each child who is being born is being born in the presence of less misinformation. I had an incredible amount of misinformation which came with that tradition. It was given to me in the greatest love, and I was absolutely convinced of the love that was giving it to me, and I did everything I could to take it on. There is no question, it was not a matter of anybody being malevolent at all! But, I had, and I still have much of that conditioned reflex it is very difficult for me to cope with things that you have not been exposed to.
I talked about the a priori what is natural. What looks "natural" to my granddaughter is very, very different than what looked to me to be I was brought up where "You can't fly at all..." to her nothing could be more boring "Anybody could fly..." And the breaks are going to work she knows the breaks are going to work.
Now, I see then, each child being born, is also born in the presence of a great deal more reliable information. Literally, for each one coming in a whole lot more, and much more accessible. And the equipment of communicating it is getting to be just incredibly better over night. We're getting the communication relays around our world, and every day we get tighter little beautiful circuits, and getting in the palm of your hands what used to be great piano-sized things. All the time making it easier and easier for all the life to get that information. And that young world who is so used to that all kinds of and the games that are played with the information, where there are novels and there are plays and you shoot and so the kid the parents are worried that the kids are going to be misinformed by this thing, but the kid is not misinformed, because he can play "shoot grandmother" like that, it doesn't mean hit grandmother at all. But the parents don't realize it they start really shooting grandmother.
So the kids, then, can winnow out then completely what really is the information, and what really counts for them is not the plot of the play at all, but really the thought or technique of how the whole thing is being done the communication system itself in that sense. So, and he realizes that he can talk a little more effectively this way, and he would like to use that kind of a tool. So I find then, a young world coming through, being less and less misinformed more and more reliable information, and one of the most beautiful things of all is that we have our own ears, and we have our own nose, and you don't tell the child "use your nose and smell," the kid says "Mom, I smell some smoke." The kid is spontaneously truthful, and that is what his senses are telling him. And Mom says, "Don't say that that man smells, that's your father's boss, he'll lose his job," and the little kid said "I don't want my father to lose his job, what should I say?" "Darling, just say you didn't recognize his distinguished perfume." So the parents tell their children to lie. The kid is spontaneously truthful. THE UNIVERSE RUNS ON THE TRUTH NOT ON LIES, and absolutely rampant in our society, due to the lethalness of the working assumption of nowhere nearly enough to go around, is the concept, then, I don't have to kill that man who's sitting on that life support, all I have to do is fool him, tell him that there' something very important, to come out here, and then I go and steal it while he's away. LYING BECAME ONE OF THE GREAT TOOLS OF SURVIVAL. AND IN MANY WAYS IT WAS MORE CRUEL THAN THE KILLING. It really put people at incredible disadvantage, they didn't know who they could count on. You get to where no corporation trusts anybody there is incredible incredulousness about "Everybody's lying."
This is that older world, that we're cutting the metabolical tradition cord from. And I now know, and as we go on more and more, as you stay with me, as we get to the right efficiencies which can be employed, we have the designing capability, I can say, by and large, I now know absolutely, incontrovertibly, the technique of how to take care of everybody at a higher standard of living than anybody has ever known. We'll get into much more of that. I know how, and we've been through this project here with Meddy Gable and the last seminar in Pennsylvania this year on energy, we now know exactly, it's all spelled out, the engineering is there, the resources are there, the know-how is there, completely spelled out incontrovertibly that by l985 we can have all of humanity enjoying the same energy advantage enjoyed by the United States, absolutely exclusively in 1972 the whole of humanity enjoying that advantage, while completely phasing out all fossil fuels and all atomic energy. We now know how to do it. And I now know then it is highly feasible to take care of all humanity and all of its generations to come at a higher standard of living than anywhere ever known. So I know that politics are invalid, I know that war is invalid, I know that weapons are invalid, and I know the lying is invalid. It doesn't work there is nothing out there. I can understand how it got in all of those things, but they are now through. But the question is how quickly can we get all of humanity to know this is so.
That is one reason why I am awfully glad that we are having this particular video. I am very glad, I'm finding enormous numbers of young people asking me to elucidate what I am saying and they are beginning to see, "Yes, that is apparently so."
But we are in for, then, absolute revolution of humanity and it can be two kinds. If it is one to pull the top down, or the one of vengeance, that is not as probable as it used to be, it was when the majority were "have-nots." We are now where the majority are "haves." If it is one, then, to pull the top down, and it is bloody, it is all over. If it is a matter then of pulling everybody up to a higher standard of living than anybody has ever known, and doing it by DESIGN SCIENCE REVOLUTION, instead of by guns where we use the information, employ the principles, reduce them to practice, use the tools, use the technology, use the industrialization to really work for everybody then we'll survive. Unless we are spontaneously in that mood, within the next ten years, I think humanity is all through.
This is now time, now, for us to stop for tonight. I wanted you then to start feeling some of the big, big patterns of movement since the outset. Then I'm going to go in with you, a great deal in with you, into special case geometries, technology, industry and so forth so I'd like you to, by the time we've finished this together, really to feel what design science is, and how you do play world game What I've been doing with you is world gaming what are the big patterns? And what are our responsibilities, what ought we to be doing? Going over there what is the main track at 90 degrees off here?
So, next session then, I am going to open up with precession some more, because you keep seeing, that is the one that man knows the least about, and I'm going to, I hope, make it very very clear, so you really feel the power of that tool of precession.
So, thank you very much.